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Introduction

The necessity for justice programs arises with the increasing crime rate in society. Changes in moral and ethical principles in the community gave rise to new offenses and crimes. The juvenile activities undertaken by the adults are the most alarming as they can turn into serious crimes. It is possible to reduce cruelty and violence and develop a better community.

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However, it is necessary to implement development plans and programs that will improve the criminal justice system. One should provide offenders with education, therefore, they can adapt themselves to society with potential abilities and skills.

At present, the problem of the increasing number of crimes among young people is of our concern. The low age of criminal responsibility can be the result of the increasing of criminals in our society. At an early age, children are not conscious of their actions and very often they do not distinguish between good and wrong deeds.

However, from an ethical point of view, people of all ages should be responsible for their actions. As to raising children, parents should play the role in disciplining and following laws by their children (American Correctional Association, 1997).

The criminal justice system uses educational programs as means to correct and/or improve society. Moreover, drug prevention programs should be implemented as drug use among juveniles tends to have been increasing; hence, rehabilitation and educational programs are beneficial for order and safety in society.

This research paper intends to discuss the historical background, organizational, operational structures of crime programs, and traditional practices. It reveals innovations and use of technology, its strengths and weaknesses, evaluations, alternatives, and their impact on the development of a safe society.

Historical Background of the Programs

Justice institutions develop educational and rehabilitation programs to introduce positive changes in the community. The historical background of these programs is related to punishments used by the justice system and judicial trials. There were no rehabilitation and educational programs for the offenders that could correct their behavior and prevent their further anti-social actions.

The demand for these programs appeared due to changes in societies and the increase in the crime rate. Justice programs served as the means of ensuring safety and order in the community, enhancing better lives free of crimes, and providing alternatives for innovations and changes.

These programs cover greater parts of the population due to an increase in the crime rate and criminals among juveniles. Their mission remains the same and it does not depend on location and time changes. These programs are aimed to reduce crimes and implement correctional policy among teenagers. Narconon International started educational and drug prevention program offering learning and training services for more than 5 million schools.

The success of this organization became even more evident as it reached over 8 million students in 5 thousand schools. For the past 40 years, Narconon International has been influencing new generations in terms of preventing drug abuse (About Narconon International, 2014).

Community policing programs operate in all parts of the world. In America, their mission is to curb crimes in society. However, their role is debatable as many police officers can fulfill its objectives. The National Neighborhood Foot Patrol Center is aimed to reduce crimes through training community members, politicians, and police officers.

For example, the School of Criminal Justice invites students for education and training the skills necessary for the implementation of community policing programs (About School of Criminal Justice, 2014).

Specific deterrence and rehabilitation programs are part of the struggle again crimes in society. Preventing drug and alcohol abuse and integration in society are the main missions of these programs. Drug and alcohol issues are the driving forces for increasing the crime rate. Therefore, it is essential to implement specific deterrence and rehabilitation programs as the ways of prevention of possible crimes (About Rehab Programs, 2014).

Organizational or Operational Structure

In most cases, Educational and Drug Prevention Programs, Community Policing, Specific Deterrence, and Rehabilitation have complex organizational and operational structures. It includes various allocations of objectives and tasks that are necessary for resolving the issues arising.

Theoretical and practical pieces of advice, recommendations, and instructions will help to involve students in the educational process. Moreover, they prevent alcohol and drug abuse, patrolling the districts with a high crime rate or rehabilitation of those who are alcohol and drug-addicted.

Educational and Drug Prevention Programs, Community Policing, Specific Deterrence, and Rehabilitation include planning, coordination, supervision, and coordination of the assignments. All these programs include operations aimed at helping people who have problems with the law, victims of crimes, and those suffering from drug and alcohol addiction. The organizational and operational structure of such programs presupposes providing public order and personal freedom. Moreover, it should accomplish the aims and goals of the organization that conducts correctional and/or educational work.

The structure of these programs is changeable and depends on the situation. Moreover, the structure of educational and drug prevention programs differs from the structure of community policing or specific deterrence and rehabilitation. The above structures are different due to the objectives and goals.

However, they are similar in the mission to improve the community and reduce the crime rate. Organizational structure helps to define the ways of fulfilling the objectives and program performance. One can distinguish two types of the influence of operational and organizational structure. These are providing the basis for conducting the necessary operations and determining the role of the individual when he/she participates in any program.

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Traditional Practices

Traditional practices of Educational and Drug Prevention Programs, Community Policing, Specific Deterrence, and Rehabilitation regard crimes as committed unconsciously. As a result, they rely upon preventive measures that return people who violated the law to the usual life. Correctional measures inform about crimes, create methods of prevention, and inspire other people to struggle for order and safety. Traditional practices insist on the isolation of people committing crimes and consuming alcohol and drugs.

Traditional practices of Educational and Drug Prevention Programs, Community Policing, Specific Deterrence, and Rehabilitation includes all aspects of correctional work. It is aimed to avoid crimes by imprisoning criminals and isolating alcoholics and drug users. However, one can say that such traditional practices only give birth to new crimes and offenses. (American Correctional Association, 1997).

  1. Firstly, public correctional measures implement sanctions and provide supervision of the individuals who committed crimes or performed immoral acts. As one can see, this policy was created to reduce the level of crimes and give a chance to reform those who have committed a crime unconsciously.
  2. Secondly, the correctional policy is based on different correctional programs that are being put in practice and have revealed positive results.
  3. Thirdly, correctional programs are aimed at people of different genders and cultures. It means that there is no discrimination in the correctional policy. Additionally, correctional policy works not only with offenders but also with victims.

However, changes in the community, increasing crime rate, cruelty, and violence provoke the necessity of implementation of untraditional practices and innovations that will be more efficient.

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Innovations and Use of Technology

Analyzed above justice programs demand improvements and innovations to remain technologically updated. First of all, the involvement of the community in the development of crime policies is recommended. For example, testing and monitoring of the chosen people for suitability for correctional work. This innovation will help to shape the justice system according to the requirements and needs of the local communities. Moreover, it should include correctional works with adult and juvenile female offenders, offenders with special needs, victims of crimes, children, families, youth online, etc.

As one may see, everybody can rely on the public correctional policy. The public correctional policy provides gender receptiveness and takes into consideration cultural, social, behavioral, and physical differences. The correctional policy provides physical as well as financial aid if necessary.

The positive side of the public correctional policy is that it separates correction work into that of children and adults meaning that it is interested in the personal and developmental needs of every personality. It is necessary to admit that correctional policy is based on collaboration with other correctional services.

Another innovation brought by the justice programs includes possible rehabilitation and correctional activities that could respond and reply to the crimes and offenses (Harlow, 2003).

Protection of the public with the help of supervising the inmates and rehabilitating the offenders is realized by the Department of Corrections. Work, programs, and treatment services can be effective. The statistics show that many correctional programs are realized by the staff that has no educational and employment skills, which means that they do not help but only bring harm.

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Analysis of Data

Speaking about the impact of Educational and Drug Prevention Programs, Community Policing, Specific Deterrence and Rehabilitation, it is necessary to mention that it is rather positive than negative. However, the problem is that the population that needs correctional programs is increasing yearly. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, there are 6.9 million offenders who are under correctional control. It means that justice programs cannot fulfill all needs of offenders.

Correctional objectives of justice programs are very important aspects of work with the offenders and inmates. Well-structured correctional programs will bring new opportunities to the correctional policy. It benefits from decreasing the level of crimes and offenses and increasing the quality of work and community services.

Correctional program is one of the components of organizational and strategic management, which is necessary for the effective realization of correctional policy. The correctional policy creates conditions for employees, organizes correctional work, and forms budgets. (Batiuk, 2005).

Educational and Drug Prevention Programs, Community Policing, Specific Deterrence and Rehabilitation deal with the issues of detection of the causes of crimes and offenses and achievement of greater saving. However, innovations in correctional solutions and individual and family history present the aspects of not less crucial importance.

For better functioning of all correctional programs, they should collaborate with other companies concerning the questions of correctional work, education, and rehabilitation. As one can see, the correctional policy of the justice programs should be based on ethical principles. (Harlow, 2003).

Strengths and Weaknesses

Educational and Drug Prevention Programs, Community Policing, Specific Deterrence, and Rehabilitation have their weaknesses and strengths. Considering the strengths, firstly, it should be mentioned that justice programs implement sanctions and provide supervision of the individuals who are accused of performing immoral acts. As it can be seen, they aim to reduce the level of crimes and give the chance to those who have committed a crime unconsciously.

Secondly, the implementation of these programs revealed positive results. Thirdly, these correctional programs are designed for people of different genders and cultures. It means that there is no discrimination in the correctional policy. The correctional policy works not only with offenders but also with victims.

Advantages of justice programs are provided by offering moral regeneration to members of the society. It does not mean that an offender or criminal should not be punished. Though, along with the punishment one should be offered a chance to improve himself as a member of society. In this regard, moral regeneration will guarantee not repeating a crime or an offense.

Weaknesses of the justice programs include lack of costs and unskilled staff, as well as the absence of ethical and moral norms and imperfection of the correctional programs. Community crime prevention strategy does not only try to define preventive measures but also takes into consideration the reason for the problem. However, the obstacle here is that the government does not support the community in its struggle against crimes.

The main obstacle in terms of justice programs trying to cope with physical and social issues are the indifference of society to physical and social issues that give birth to new offenses and crimes. Justice programs require the active participation of the community members.

The limitation of this point is that the community members are often indifferent to problems. Community prevention strategy demands the help of partnership beyond law enforcement. Nonetheless, this point also has its limitations since there is no appropriate partnership and agreement in crime prevention strategies.

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Evaluations, Theory, and Innovations, Alternatives, and Impact

The age of criminal responsibility in different countries varies depending on culture and religious views. In modern society, while choosing the age of criminal responsibility, one takes into consideration the psychological, ethical, and moral aspects of criminal responsibility.

However, every person reaches emotional, mental, and intellectual maturity at different ages that is why criminal justice cannot adapt to every person. The biggest ethical dilemma of criminal responsibility at an early age is that it may lead to the moral degradation of society, with most of its young generation becoming criminals. Without a doubt, criminal justice and security management are the branches that demand moral behavior in comparison with other professions.

Justice programs include providing involvement of law enforcement and public safety services. In fact, the prevention of crime is the process of empowering the whole community. These justice programs involve in crime prevention not only law enforcement agencies but other groups of the community. School and teachers, family, and parents should also be the integral components of the crime prevention strategy of these programs.

Justice programs provide opportunities to reduce the level of crimes. Additionally, such programs can be used for exploring the ways of looking for security, solving social problems, and collaboration with all levels of government. The task of community prevention strategy is aimed to strengthen crime prevention skills and involving them in crime prevention practice.

Indeed, the successful realization of these programs will benefit law enforcement and the whole community. It is worth saying that these programs have such benefits as taking care of safety for people and developing a safe environment inhospitable to crime (Batiuk, 2005).

It is necessary to mention that to make this crime prevention strategy successful, it should coincide with providing ethical education to youth. Lack of ethical principles provokes violation of laws and crimes in the society. In fact, it should be said that these justice programs will benefit shortening of the crime rate while taking into consideration juridical, moral, and ethical aspects.

Proper raising and disciplining of children by their parents is the biggest ethical dilemma at present.

Conclusion

Having analyzed justice programs, the inference should be drawn that they are successful in changing the situation with crimes and offenses. Any crime program should have a strategic plan of actions that will focus upon the entire problem rather than separate aspects.

In this regard, the issue should be carefully analyzed, predicting possible obstacles and contradictions and taking into consideration all opinions, considering alternative interventions, and defining objectives. It is necessary to include workplace wellness in Human Resource Management. The realization of justice programs greatly depends on the employees meaning that it will be successful when the employees act innovatively, creatively, and imaginatively.

The legislature should be involved in correctional work providing additional options concerning the substance of abuse, crimes, and offenses. To make the correctional programs effective, the following principles should adhere to accountability, competence, knowledge, opportunity, protection, justice, and humanity. These aspects will benefit public safety and order.

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