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Protection of Human Participants

Benefits. The major benefit to the participants is the privilege to discuss their problems with a friendly person. They get an opportunity to interact with researchers, thus get a chance to increase their knowledge about themselves through introspection. They can know their conditions much better. There will be excitement for being a part of the study. Self-satisfaction that information they acquire could be helpful for others having similarities in their issues. They can get stipends or other privileges for their contribution.

Risks to the Participants. They are prone to have unanticipated physical side effects. It could cause fatigue, psychological issues that result from introspection, having unknown fears, anger, feeling of embarrassment for the type of questions asked. Participants may face the risk of losing their social status causing a drastic effect on their personal life. They lose privacy, time, and monetary expenditures. Informed consent is to protect the research participant. According to the author, for participation, the patient’s consent is important. Informed consent is a legal principle. The subject participates voluntarily in the study.

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The researchers obtained informed consent from the participants. The only participant who was interested to be a part of the study was made the study sample after making them understand the benefits and risks associated with the research.

Before the beginning of the study, the researcher generated relevant documents for the study. It was then reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board.

Data Collection

The dependent and independent variables identified in the study are “HRQL-mental” and “HRQL-physical”.

The data collection methods included interviews, journaling, observation of participants, and art analysis. The most common method used was through the interviews. The authors are more rationale in having face-to-face interviews than preferring telephonic ones. The interview time lasted between sixty to ninety minutes. The researchers prefer a comfortable room having no interruptions for the process. The information is confidential. Trust is yielded by maintaining a good rapport. A set of semi-structured interviews that have fixed questions is used. There will be no fixed responses, and it helps the participant to expand and elaborate on the points made in the conversation. By using individual interviews, the authors seek to understand personal attitudes and beliefs surrounding the topic (Jackson, Daly, & Davidson, 2008). The scholar seeks a natural setting or a location for a descriptive study (Burns & Grove,2011).

Data Management and Analysis

The data were analyzed with SPSS version 14. To describe the demographic characteristics of the participant, the frequencies and descriptive statistics were employed. By the authors, the data collection and analysis occur simultaneously. The interviewer gathers, manages, and interprets the data (Burns & Grove, 2011). The data analysis performs later. The audiotapes of the interview are accurately transcribed (The National Institute of Mental Health, 2009). It is a time-consuming process since it includes one hour to record and four hours to transcribe the information. Significant information is extracted and the meaning is formulated from the information. There is a cluster of themes. The meaning is verified if it is genuine and is not manipulated just to fit in the theme. An exhaustive description is formulated to capture and elucidate the intensity and depths of the situation experienced by the participant. To ensure rigor, the researcher provides a copy of the observation to the participant and verifies if it is correct. The scientists also used the non-parametric correlation statistical tests to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. They did not make any paper trial of the important information during analyzing the data. The researchers used the SPSS method to verify the accuracy of the data.

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Findings / Interpretation of Finding

By the authors, the important finding was correcting the misunderstanding of the participants about using pain medication. The knowledge deficits regarding the pain medication were corrected. The result is based on beliefs, past experiences, and previous records of the researches done. The clinical interpretation is that patients fail to understand the use of medication correctly.

 The scholars did not discuss any interpretation related to family or spouse care as it does not fit in the research according to the authors’ philosophy of nursing and health care.

The study findings are stated in a logical manner which has implications for the nursing practices. The researchers examined how diabetic young adults termed spirituality and the relationship between spirituality and coping. The implication states the health care professionals must consider the fact that young men and women ought to have spiritual growth to enable them to cope with the situations.

Qualitative and quantitative studies suggest the ideas where health care professionals can incorporate spirituality into diabetics care (Burns & Grove, 2011).

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