Please explain how a bill becomes a law in the United States

1. Please explain how a bill becomes a law in the United States

In the U.S., the duty of legislating laws implements the Congress, sometimes referred to as the Representatives. Actually, each and every law in the country, once started as a bill and, apparently, before it became a law, had to be accepted by the House of Representatives, Senate, and, lastly, the President. The Constitutional Provisions in the country, whose prime rationales are to build obstacles, usually manage the course that an introduced bill passes through prior to becoming a law. The fore founders of our nation supposed that competence was the feature of domineering government, and that they required being certain that all the laws that essentially passed the entire hurdles were those which underwent thorough consideration and inspection by lots of eyes. Below is described a process which all the U.S. bills pass through before becoming laws.

The bill starts its journey from a simple idea from citizens, the President, or even the Representatives, and after it is drafted, it is then presented either in the Senate or the House. Then, after introduction of the bill to the House or Senate, it’s assigned to the respective committees, whereby, for instance, a bill on farming subsidies is directly allocated to the committee that deals with agriculture issues. Bills which propose or rather aim at reviewing the banking interest rates go to the committee which handles financial services. Sometimes, since the amount of bills introduced into the House is bulky, the majority of them are sent straight to subcommittees, but, seemingly, such majority comprises about 90 percent of bills going straight to subcommittee or committee stages where they are forgotten, or pigeonholed and, therefore, are never discussed. In essence, if then a bill endures this stage, hearings are put in which different lobbyists, government officials, or experts present their take, or rather their views, to the committee members. Subsequent to the hearings, revision, or marking up is done on the bill until the entire committee is all set to launch it to the House floor.

Once a bill is taken to the floor for debate, it has had to pass through the Rules Committee first; the Committee sets up time boundaries on the debate and also rules for carrying out amendments and, sometimes, the Committee imposes a condition called ‘gag rule’, where it sets quite limited time for the bill and, therefore, offers no time for amendments. On the Senate floor, there happens to be looser restrictions, whereby no limitations are imposed on amendments. The two houses require a quorum of all its respective members to be in attendance for voting to take place. For a bill to pass, it has generally to receive a majority ballot by the members present.

The bills which are complex, particularly important, or controversial, usually pass through the conference committees where it might be assumed to merge two sects of a certain bill, for instance, a bill from the Senate to another one from the Congress, where the two Houses are unable to amicably agree on the proposed changes. The amended bill then goes back to each respective floor for it to be passed before taken to the President for accent. Once its present to the President, he/she might decide to accent the bill, and, therefore, it turns into a law, or may get veto that rejects it, whereby it might go back to the House for further debating; there may happen the situation when 2/3 of Senators and Representatives support the bill, then the veto is superseded and it turns to be a law. Seemingly, the President can do nothing, thus, pocketing veto, and if the Congress happens to be on session, then the bill becomes law automatically after ten days.

2. We discussed the various characteristics that are important in a president. 

Tell  me  what TWO characteristics  you  think  are  the  most important  for  the president  to  possess  and  why.

The United States has had a long history as a country since the era of colonization by the British, slavery, independence, industrial revolution and coming up with its constitution, up to now, whereby it stands as a superpower and economical hub globally.  With all these achievements, the country requires a leader who possesses enormous qualities so that he/she is able to direct the country to the right economical, political, and social growth. Below are described the best two qualities which the U.S. President has to have so as to rule the nation effectively.

The best quality for the U.S. President is to possess superior leadership traits. Taking on the role to run the entire U.S. country is quite an enormous burden and, therefore, leadership skills serve as an effective public communicator and make a person a firm decision maker. The ability to accurately contact with the public through all avenues available is quite important in ensuring that the President is in constant touch with people. The modern U.S. presidential pulpit has been exposed to numerous challenged, both internally and externally, and, therefore, he/she must be well skilled to effectively pass information to the public through formal or informal sources, and ensure that the administration is in good terms with the public at all times.

Another vital quality the U.S. President ought to have is temperance, self-possession and calmness. For instance, how can he/she be fair with office pressures? Does he/she possess an equanimity in handling uncertainty or true crisis? Some of these are the questions each and every citizen ought to ask themselves and, in this case, the President has to have rather calm character to obtain useful ability to stay cool at all times, even under intense pressure. Presidents are the chief executive officers of a country and, apparently, they face adversity, turmoil, and disasters regularly and, therefore, they always have to maintain coolness and composure without breaking down or even letting stress influence them.

Moreover, the President has to be self-assured, he/she has to show a great sense of calmness and always stay in control of emotions and the situation. Everyone undergoes anger lapses, but the President should not offer decisions when he is in emotional wreck, with immense temperance he/she will be able to recognize the times when to control their emotions and know the precise moments when to put across passion regarding an issue that is essential in their agenda.

3. The  United  States bureaucracy  has  grown in  size  since it  was  first  formed  and  George Washington  was President  Tell me TWO  reasons  the  United  States bureaucracy has grown  in size  from  then  until  now.

Bureaucracy refers to a big, composite organization, whereby, in this case is the U.S., as a country which provides particular job responsibilities to non-elected personnel in its government of implementing the ideas, law, rules, and other functionalities within certain authority or hierarchy. Therefore, our government is basically a bureaucracy, whereby over the years it has created departments, institutions, and organizations all over the country with the aim of managing all the activities occurring within its bounders and even beyond. Government organizations and departments, like in agriculture, treasury, energy, justice, defense, transportations and the state amongst others, have been split down into bureaus, agencies and services over the years with the aim of serving the public. Below are the reasons as to why bureaucracy has immensely grown over the ages in the country.

National Crises

The country has had numerous catastrophes and crises over the years and every time it faces some disaster, the amount of countrywide employees expands so as to handle the particular crisis. This is evident in the expansion patterns within the national government regarding to its employment rate when such calamities strike. The utmost increases happened while the nation tried to meet the predicament caused by the World War II and, more so, the America’s Great Depression. Additional increases occurred under the Great Society programs by Lyndon Johnson and most recently, after the crisis of 9/11. Many theorists blame bureaucracy for the 9/11 attack since many government organizations related to the country’s intelligence and security were aware of the threat posed by the terrorists group ‘The Al Qaeda’, but, apparently, none of them was adequately prepared for such a crisis. After the attack, the department of homeland security was established with the sole aim of securing the country from internal and external terror threats.

Some calamities had short term effects, like the First World War, which had simply a momentary impact on the national government’s employment. The country regained their status immediately after the war. Others crises took a longer period or even were a string of crises. For instance, the Second World War, which ended in 1945, was instantaneously followed by the Korean War, which took almost 3 years, and then ranged the Cold War, which lasted for almost half a century. Furthermore, the energy calamity, which reigned in the 1970s, directed to the establishment of the U.S. Department of Energy during 1977, and this branch combined all the detached energy associated programs and agencies spread all over the central government. The same way, the Homeland Security Department was created in 2003 and it brought collectively a large range of bureaus and agencies to optimistically check and counter to all home attacks immediately after the 9/11 terror attacks. 

The failure to handle a crisis generally amplifies bureaucracy. For instance, the low reaction to the Hurricane Katrina, which affected the Gulf Coast and New Orleans, led to an immense public uproar for additional structures to be set in place so as to advance the response rate in the future and also for the government to take strong actions to avert future catastrophe, like reconstruction of levees.

 Conflicts/Citizen Demands Due To More Interdependence

 Overtime, the U.S. citizens have grown to be more interdependent and in the event of any conflicts, they pose demands to the government. After the creation of the U.S. Constitution, the majority of people resided in isolated farms where they planted their food, built their furniture, supplied their water and sanitary facilities, and fabricated their clothing amongst other stuff they made for themselves.  However, the massive industrial revolution, which occurred in late 1800s, changed this characteristic self-reliance where, for instance, the farmers started relying further on machinery. The interdependency grew over the ages as people depended on one another and to date it is referred to as globalization, which has been responsible for people to consume commodities manufactured in the Far East. Apparently, the consequence of such mounting interdependency has been more clashes with every person and, generally, more ambiguity on the overall wellbeing of the stuff we use.

Therefore, due to these uncertainties and conflicts, the public has been demanding the government to actually resolve all these issues and, more so, make assurances that the stuff used are secure and operate as publicized. For this reason, if, by bad chance, anything one uses harms people, the public demands further government protection which translates to more bureaucracy. With the introduction of technology, news spread faster and, therefore, news stories informing the public on latest scare, for instance, of unsafe tomatoes, toys, unsafe pet food, or even goods produced through slave labor, make people call for additional government regulation. The reaction of the public towards anything which directly or indirectly affects them has resulted in more bureaucracy through building of agencies, departments, and bureaus by the government or the state with the purpose of protecting its citizens against harm or exploitation.

4. We spent our last class discussing both domestic and foreign policy.  Tell me what ONE  issue you  think  is  the most  important  /  most  pressing  in  either  domestic  or  foreign  policy  and  why.


The issue of immigration has affected the U.S. in many ways and this has made it become a major domestic policy issue, since, for instance, annually the country receives more than one million legal and illegal immigrants and this poses a threat to the country in general. The main policy issue revolves around what ought to be the general status of all the illegal immigrants in the country, bearing in mind that there are currently over eleven million such immigrants in the country. Therefore, immigration is the main domestic issue affecting the country presently, since it costs the government billions of dollars in tax payers money and below are the consequences of illegal immigration.

Economic issue. Immigration has been known to cause intense economic problems. Many illegal immigrants come to the U.S. in search of better paid jobs, but end up being exploited by employers. Due to their status, they don’t remit taxes since some of them even lack the monetary capability to share in the country’s growth by remitting taxes. Most of these immigrants are paid under the table which is unlawful according to the country’s laws.

Moreover, these immigrants drain the public resources, or, rather, they use more of the government resources which they haven’t paid and this brings a deep negative impact to the national treasury, and generally affects the healthcare, welfare, and educational resources. The tax payers are forced to pay more money so as to support the government programs and this hurts the economy and also those legal citizens who are being milked with taxes to support the illegal immigrants. Also, the low skillful American citizens compete directly with the illegal immigrant for jobs and this phenomenon pushes down earnings and limits the job prospects for middle-class earners, thus, affecting the economy directly.

Social/legal system. The most severe price of illegal immigration in the country concerns the overall superiority of our society. The illegitimate immigrants are regularly uncertain to collaborate with the law enforcement system, and this increases their individual susceptibility and crafts it complex for the law enforcement agencies to obtain essential information. The malfunction to impose immigration laws corrodes respect for the country’s legal system, thus, encouraging hostility and vigilantism against cultural minorities. The existence of quite large figures of populace who subsist outside the protection of the law erodes the societal bond and hampers the collaboration needed to establish vibrant and safe communities.

Security environment is intensely affected by the influx of illegal aliens in the country and the government’s efforts to restrain these immigrations drive them underground, thus, encouraging the customs of illegality. For instance, when five out of each 100 populace in the U.S. are illegal/undocumented or even documented through fake and forged papers, there poses a weighty security predicament. Despite the fact that they create no express security risk, the existence of 11 million of undocumented immigrants deforms the law, diverts resources, and efficiently creates an envelope for criminals as well as terrorists.

Cultural fragmentation. Increased immigration into the U.S. is highly degrading the country’s national identity. New studies have shown that the fresh immigrants do not assimilate easily into the American culture as precedent immigrants did. The country is referred to as a vast melting ground of cultures, and multiculturalism is blamed to encourage a range of ethnic groups in keeping their languages and identities. This trend is quite alarming as it’s eroding the rooted American culture and installing a mixture of fragmented cultures which poses a danger to the young generation.

Therefore, some of the policy makers argue that the country should just legalize all the illegal immigrants, while another side of the policy issue is whether we must offer all benefits, schooling, and healthcare to all the undocumented immigrants. Also, another policy issue tries to propose that we ought to formulate harsh laws against the issue of illegal immigrants and, at the same time, enact tougher rules punishing the people who employ these illegal immigrants. All these policies have their merits and demerits, but first we should immediately deal with this problem as soon as possible since illegal immigration has brought negative effects to the country. 


l.  Who do you  think was  the  most  significant/  most important  president  of the  United  states and why?

The U.S. Presidency globally is the mainly revered and honored political office and great Attorneys, Generals, and still actors have once in a while had the reputation of being called the Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. In my opinion, the greatest President of all times is Abraham Lincoln. My choice is based on his historical actions and influence while he was in office. Lincoln was the sixteenth president and his successes are the most remarkable, bearing in mind his reserved background coupled with limited experience. He was the then President during the disastrous American civil war, which rocked the country in 1861-1865, and he solely handled and preserved the Union from disintegration.  His leadership throughout the war was of no compromise and stern direction as he plainly understood he had the duty of uniting all the States after the war. Actually, his major driving force was that he was a hard believer and believed in the role of the people, and assumed that if they were presented with the truth, then they would be dependent on it in meeting any national disaster.

Abraham Lincoln saw the need for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, abolishing slavery after 1863, where he issued the liberation proclamation to 10 confederate States, but many people termed it as a momentary war measure. This proclamation, apparently, neither abolished slavery, nor liberated slaves from the remaining Border States, and this instigated other republicans and Lincoln himself to come up with the 13th Amendment. This Amendment, which was adopted in 1865, outlawed completely involuntary servitude and slavery, apart from if given as a punishment to a crime committed. This Amendment saw the end of slavery and Abraham Lincoln is highly remembered for it, especially within the African-American society.

2.  We  talked  about  a lot  of United  States  Supreme Court  cases this  semester  in  class and  in your  class  notes.

Which United states  supreme  Court  case  do  you think  is  the  most  significant and why?

Marbury v. Madison

The supreme case between Marbury vs. Madison of 1803 arose when John Adams of the Federalist party was defeated in the presidential elections by Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic - Republican Party and, therefore, he decided to appoint many justices to head commissions, but when Jefferson assumed power he stopped their deliverance. William Marbury was amongst those appointees and he launched a petition or legal order with the Supreme Court so as to force Madison to give him back his commission. The Supreme Court operated on the rule of law and argued that Marbury had the right to the appointed commission after being signed by the then President, Adams. More so, the rule of law dwells on the provision of remedy since it contained the civil liberty provisions. The ruling found out that the Supreme Court had supremacy to review all the acts of the legislative body since it was its duty to interpret the law. Even though the Supreme Court turned down Marbury petition, the case helped in defining the boundaries between the executive and judicial branches of the government and showed that the Supreme Court had the authority over judicial review.

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