Rhythm is basically everything that is involved in the organization of melodic basics in time. The aspect of rhythm includes meter, tempo, pace and a nearly unlimited amount of means in which short or long durations of silence and sound create molds within time. These handlings of meter toward forming patterns are quite imperative factors since they apparently are the prime means of giving both repose as well as tension. In the musical arena, there are loads of pattern gadgets which can be used in creating tension, for instance like ostinato and meter alterations. An assessment of which definite procedures taken with meter, tempo, and pace generate either repose or tension is in array to characterize how the aspect of rhythm itself generates these sensations in the one listening and more so how it is used in the control of tension and repose (Funes 5).
A feeling of repose appears when several facets supply harmony by staying unaffected while the additional elements are shifting considerably. The steadiness of this tempo or rather rhythm supplies a standard for one listening that represses the tension. Conversely, when tempo is exposed to substantial deviation, the impulsiveness of the deviation and the augmented amount of musical information the person listens have to process and this can make an immense pact of tension.
Musical beat or rather pulse is in essence a sequence of undifferentiated inclinations of equivalent emphasis along with the length. The populace usually recognizes these pulses within assemblages of two or even three, due to accents or stresses (imagined or real) on the beginning of the initial pulse of every group. Usually, there are pulse groupings at other than one altitude of a bit; occasionally there are diverse pulses at quite a few levels concurrently. For instance, the masterpiece done by Giuseppe Tartini which is in the format of A Major, the third movement, seemingly has an enormous deal of action during the violins activity at a rate of pulse which is twice faster as the one of each fundamental pulse. This occurs due to the dividing of every fundamental pulse in the piece into 2 parts (Giuseppe n.p.).
Tempo is described as the moderate speed or rather rapidity of a specific piece and it is marked through the amount of pulses in particular time duration. The more there are fundamental pulses in a given moment span, the quicker the tempo. An ordinary human heart speed is placed at 72-76 pulses per minute, and therefore as an imperative of thumb, those tempos which are relatively close to the ordinary heart rate of a human can be measured as being a temperate speed. Seemingly, tempos on whichever side of the moderate heart beat can be deemed as being slower or faster depending on which side they lie on the 72 mark (Elements of Music - Part Five n.p.).
Involuntarily, the listeners of a certain musical piece suppose a stable status as a norm in that piece. Variations in tempo infringe stoutly on our consciousness and generate repose or tension and these changes in the tempo can be applied in controlling the repose or musical tension. For instance, acquaintance with a stable feeling of pulse or rather beat in a specific musical convention like jazz or classical ostensibly can produce expectations. If such expectations are deprived, then the intensity of tension will be heightened. On the other hand, if these prospects are satisfied, then the altitude of musical tension will apparently be significantly lower (Elements of Music - Part Five n.p).
Tempo alteration is divided into four types: a sudden change in the fundamental pulse rate, rubato, ritardando, and accelerando. Rubato is the regular mutuality in the fundamental pulse rate. Accelerando refers to the steady rise in the fundamental pulse rate while ritardando is the regular drop off in the central pulse rate and both of them help in providing smooth transitions. Abrupt tempo alterations like rubato have spectacular effects, lowering or heightening the tension abruptly and increasing the general impact of a melodic idea. Given that any alter in a fundamental pulse speed is effortlessly perceived, then musical composers use tempo alterations for an assortment of effects, like those of changing the beginning, mood or end of a melodic idea and most importantly these changes are also used in controlling a musical repose or tension.
The pace of whichever musical element is defined as its speed of activity which is supposed in association to a number of norms. After the norm is set up, any apparent decrease or increase in the speed of the piece’s sounds alter is termed as a variation in pace. Escalating the speed of whichever element supposedly increases the intensity of tension in the musical piece. For instance, pacing up its pulse, rising the volume, plus altering the excellence of the resonance all amplifies the tension. On the other hand, lessening the speed of one of the above elements generates a sensation of repose. For instance, the musical work of John Coltrane called A Love Supreme, variations in pace correspond with the positions of utmost tension. The piece’s solo develops whilst increased action is put in the steady background of piano, bass, and drums. The furthermost altitude of tension within the piece is formed by playing elevated pitches on a quicker pace, whereas the peak stage of repose element is produced by slugging the pace along with playing minor pitches (John n.p.).
The term meter in any musical setting describes the calibration of melodious time by the use of musical pulses, and it can operate independently or even become construction aspects for a larger cadenced groupings. In the musical world, there are 3 forms of metrical variance, namely: suppressed meter, superimposed subdivision, and syncopation (Elements of Music - Part Five n.p.).
Superimposing a fresh section on an entrenched meter altitude creates metrical variance because it amplifies the figure of musical actions the listener has got to compact with at every single time. This mechanism is used intermittently through the piece since its efficiency solely relies on the disclosure of disparity. The extra subdivision offers what apparently had gone before it. The masterpiece created by Charles Ives Number 3 is quite a clear illustration of how greatly tension or rather stresses can be formed through overlaid subdivision. The fundamental pulse stays steady, nevertheless, the attention of the listener shifts from device to device when they generate contradictory metrical groupings (Charles n.p.).
These types always generate ambiguity or conflict, which raise the altitude of tension within a musical bit. Syncopation refers to the unanticipated displacement or absence of the regular first-pulse intonation that identifies the central meter group and it is to a large extent among the highly widespread tension-raising gadgets in today’s music. A lot of syncopated rhythms positioned together can produce great stimulation for the musical listener. For instance, in the piece created by Peter Tchaikovsky called the Swan Lake “Valse”, the normal intonation of the swift three-pulse fundamental meter is opposed by the recurring tension on the subsequent beat of the cluster although the central pulse continues (Peter n.p.).
The suppression of well-built musical stress leads to uncertainty and ambiguity, which seemingly is a basis of melodic tension. Altering the pulse clusters from twos towards threes as well as vice versa is possible to outcome in a raise or even dropping off in the level tension plus a heightening of musical interest. Asymmetrical time spans are supposedly produced by integrating three pulse and two pulse clusters in numerous pieces. This phenomenon raises the intensity of tension simply because the listeners’ musical conditioning makes them suppose that the instance will be distinctly marked off uniformly (refuting this belief increases tension/stress) and such mixtures are even harder to maintain trail of than steady reverberation of the fundamental pulse groups (Elements of Music - Part Five n.p.).
A mechanism identified as an ostinato is mainly a rhythmic blueprint which becomes decipherable by being replicated indefatigably all through the musical composition. The device is time and again amalgamated with a tune and apparently serves up as musical backdrop in particular musical pieces. Moreover, it is principle of harmony all the way through repetition where it remains the identical though the model of whichever ostinato and more so it is frequently distinctive to the specific musical composition in which its located or happens to be placed. For instance, in the musical arena or rather compositions, the dance rhythms have fixed rhythmic patterns, meter, and tempo that go together with the paces of a definite dance or rather musical format. To a certain point, the reiteration of an ostinato device can fabricate repose as well as security, and seemingly ahead of that specific point, repetition is inclined towards raising the intensity of tension by means of its exceptionally perseverance (Elements of Music - Part Five n.p.).
The ostinato is commonly referred to as an accessory in the musical world. It can be an additional cause of tension and more so can be applied in controlling tension. In the performance music, a musician may maintain the quintessence of jazz, ballet, or even salsa’s specific rhythms. Although he or she will alter the fundamental pattern. On the other hand, the audience’s acquaintance with the central pattern forms mental expectations which the musical composer may or may not opt to realize, building an affluent basis of tension as well as interest.
To infuse a sensation of tension, a musical piece’s composer might pace up its pulse, use the accompaniments of an ostinato, use rubato, rebuff the particular expectations of the listener towards a specific style, alter the sound quality, raise the piece volume, suppress meter, superimpose subdivision, use asymmetrical time lengths or even create cadenced conflict like that of syncopation (which is amongst the most widespread techniques). Moreover, to generate or even control the sensation of repose, the composer may possibly slow down the piece’s pulse, replicate an ostinato, apply equal time durations, use ritardando or accelerando, fix to the conventional technique of a particular genre, or even sustain the quality of a sound. All these are examples on how a musical composer can change or control the meter, tempo, or pace of a musical piece, or even its rhythm, to build mind-sets of either repose or tension.
The musical tension notion is an ordinary term in music psychology and music theory. Tension and repose are completely fundamental for the music. The principle of tension is the most important solitary principle of the musical rhythm. There are actually several sources of tension. According to many theorists these sources include melody, meter, harmonic parameters, tempo, and tension in the dissonances, texture and timbre. Tension can either be melodic or harmonic. A number of sources can actually contribute to the melodic and harmonic tension. It will be realized that a list of total relationships can actually by large magnitude add to harmonic or melodic tension (Funes 65).
It is worth noting that repose cycles and tension shape the composition of music by a great margin. Results show that tension and repose cycles can originate from the cause and effect network. Response cycles usually work on two basic levels. The first level is how the human eardrum is affected and the second level is how the listener reacts to the music. Stabilized rhythm produces a norm to the listener of the music. If rhythm by any chance is subjected to any variations then it requires the listener to process information that generates a huge deal of tension due to unpredictable variation. Therefore the more the listener takes information from the music the more tension is being produced in order to ensure that the two are in harmony. Intensity, length and range help in producing tension. It is noted that very high range, moderate intensity and long lengths create tension. On the other hand, repose according to theorists can be produced by low ranges, lengths that are very short and lower intensities (Funes pp.65-66).
Organization of the elements of music includes meter, pace and tempo that help to form the rhythm of the music. The patterns of the music are very crucial in the organization of the music because they help in producing tension and repose. This shows that pace, tempo and meter should all work together so that to produce a good rhythm that helps to create repose and tension. For repose to be created one of the elements should constantly supply unity as the other elements undergo certain modifications. This directly makes the listener to develop a norm while holding the tension down. Ostinato is one of the elements that produces unity and in most times is used by several cultures in their musical organization. Repose is created by a continuous repetition of the ostinato. Studies reveal that repetition of the ostinato also increases tension and develops security within the music. This implies that the rhythm of the music depends on the pace, meter and tempo which revolve around the organization of the music. These elements should not be violated in order to produce a quality rhythm that helps in creating repose and tension (Funes 53).
Patterns of the rhythm, meter and tempo are very crucial in reflecting the dance steps. A specific dance must always have specific steps. To creat a dance rhythm meter, tempo and the patterns of rhythm should always be fixed. If they continuously change without a pattern they make disordered dance steps. Studies clearly show that tension and repose are only created if the dance patterns are orderly. This definitely shows that the interrelationship between tempo, meter and the rhythmic patterns should be strong and very close to mean that they must all be in harmony. Clearly, these three sources of tension and repose should always be fixed to a specific dance. Their constancy ensures that there is a flow and appealing dance steps that will automatically produce the necessary repose and tension from the music.