Care planning is a combination of logical concepts that are systematically constructed and scientifically based and related to identify the nursing practices that are very essential. The concepts help in linking the theory with practice, which makes it efficient for the nurse to explore the necessary values that are essential for the effective practice.
All the care plans should be developed in agreement with the clients. The clients who are the primary target should be totally engaged as owners during the delivery of their care. The achievable goals that are specifically linked to the clients could be well set only through formulating and reviewing of the new goals. Assessment should be very comprehensive and should involve structured planning and delivering of the treatment and other necessary interventions. Through planning and implementation, the care plan provides an ideal frame work for the nurse and the patient (Roper & Tierney 2000).
The care plan model assesses the independence of an individual and the potential so that the independence in Activities of Living can be determined considering the individual’s lifespan and development. It is also engaged by the nurses to the patients as a formation for proactivity of the patients in their own self care. This implies that the plan elucidates the need for a form of educating the patients to react to their own health as opposed to dependence on the health fraternity systems, thus giving a patient-centred form of healing as opposed to the nurse-centred approach of healing. The plan is also used during the treatment as a tool to determine how the patients can be supported in order to learn about, cope with, and enable the patients to adjust for the purpose of improving their health and the challenges.
In most cases, admission of an individual is done upon admission to the ward. The nursing intervention always aims at assessing the needs and goals of a patient. The nursing model in this case is used in the assessment of the patients’ needs. The nursing models, such as the Roper-Logan-Tierney model, are practiced in a health care environment to enhance living since it has many activities that are undertaken on a daily basis (Roper & Tierney 2000). These calls for the health care professionals to asses and evaluate goals for a patient to help in the progression towards a healthier life. According to the Tierney model that includes the alleviation, prevention, and promotional health practices, there is a necessity to build up confidence between the patient and the nurse to lead to the practices that aim at finding the root of the problem, which marks the start of the healing process. The proactivity of the individual geared towards self dependence on the promotional healthcare and the daily impact of the restoration factors help in understanding the factors that contribute to self sustainability of the healthcare program. These factors, which range from biological to physiological, might be either contributory or serve as a setback for acquisition of self reliance on the patient’s health systems, which also determines the level of proactivity to self health.
The impact of the current illness or injury, overall health, and also the scope of the anatomy physiology of an individual all fall under this aspect. When a person is suffering from a disease like diabetes, the nutritional activity for the person is much more different that for the one who is healthy. The biological status of an individual should be well assessed in order to identify the nutritional balance and strength.
This is the impact in terms of cognitive emotions and beliefs in spiritual matters and the ability for one to understand. This is the ability to think, know, hope, feel, and believe, as explained by Roper. When an individual has some paranoid thoughts, it may influence his/her communication independence.
The environmental influence impacts the self care systems through determining the vulnerability of the ecosystems surrounding a living thing, which critically influences the health care system since it is the habitat for disease causing microorganisms. This implies that once an environment is a habitat to the pathogens, the occupants are more vulnerable to the diseases, as opposed to an environment that is not subjective to the disease causing microorganisms. The environmental factor can be considered in terms of dampness in a person’s residence that can result into independence in breathing i.e. it can cause breathing impairment. The green application, for instance, can be considered in how the soiled dressings with strong hazardous fluids can be possibly disposed after removal.
This is basically the importance of society and the experience gained from the culture by the individual.This includesthe values and expectations related to a person based on the societal norms that constrict the patient to some form of jurisdiction based on what is considered right or false. For instance, some communities more highly regard spiritual as oppose to the medical kind of approach to health related issues. This creates a barrier between the reality and what is considered traditional since it influences the healing process of the patient at the expense of the values that the society has. This implies that culture as a factor is linked to the values, beliefs and expectations of the individuals in connection to their independence and ability to manage their daily living. For instance, due to the fact that the expectation and assumptions of the society change, if one cares for an old person, this could be of great influence in terms of care delivery and independence.
If to talk about the political and economic factors, the stability within nations should be taken into account. The stability determines vulnerability to the forms of disease; thus, political stability is proportional to healthy systems, while the instability instigates poor health. This stability in political systems is caused by legislative forces, which might also affect personal health. For instance, the self care system introduced by the government in the US is critical to health promotion. On the other hand, the economic factors contribute to healthcare systems through determining the affordability of medical care, where lack of stable economic systems results into the provision of poor healthcare.
The success of the care plan intervention is determined upon the conclusion of the patient’s care plan. The care plan should be structured in order to reap the best out of the program with a minimal influence on the life of the patient. This shows that the success of the program depends on the minimal disturbances directed towards the patient, while the utmost good care should elucidate a friendly atmosphere that is fundamental to the proactivity of the patient healing system. The patient’s circumstances must be well considered, and the model, therefore, should be service friendly, broad, and flexible as seen in the Roper model. The adopting of a rehabilitative focus in working with patients and their caregivers within the jurisdiction of the patient is essential in prevalence of the essential support that eliminates the constraints of the health promotion system that relies on the patient-cantered form of healing.
One of the most important implications of the so called ‘pre-judged’ referrals for nursing home and residential care is that, by the time the necessary assessment is commenced, patients as well as their caregivers start to believe that a full recovery and return home is no longer possible. This is critical in confidence building between the caregiver and the patient, which aids in the process of opening up to the problem under consideration, which is the fundamental step in the healing process. There is also a growing body of evidence to suggest that, had they been given appropriate rehabilitation support, many ailing people being currently in long-term institutional care would have been able to return home. Once admitted to hospital, the quality of the initial assessment of a frail older person and the documentation and dissemination of its findings play a pivotal role in the subsequent exploration of a patient’s care needs and the options following his/her discharge. The skills and knowledge of junior medical staff, nurses, and occupational therapists are contributory factors of formation of sound health systems.
Evidence suggests that staff working in the geriatric and rehabilitation wards is more knowledgeable about the medical as well as social care needs of the elderly than those who are working in acute surgical wards. Every profession tends to have its own assessment approach, which is often reflected in the use of documentation and tools specific to this particular approach. If these assessments are to be useful in the planning of a patient’s treatment and discharge, they need to be holistic and properly documented in order to contribute to the wider process of care management and discharge planning. For some patients with complex care needs, hospital staff needs to make a referral to social services for a community care assessment. Such referrals need to be appropriate and timely. An inspection of hospital discharge arrangements for patients in some local authorities has found that, very often, they are unsatisfactory because agencies could not come to an agreement as to where exactly their responsibilities lie (Horne 1998). Though arrangements are improving, much work remains to be done.
What did Nursing Theorists Say about how a Care Plan is Produced?
A nursing theory on care planning encompasses a wide variety of concepts and interventions. Some of the categories of patient’s care planning are: case management i.e. working with the whole medical team and professionals; advanced care planning, this means that the care is considered at the end of the treatment; and then the critical procedure or the protocols that are used in the treatment of specific diseases. The categories mentioned are very potential conceptual matches, and they need to include the care planning and plans that are related. Most of care plans are disease oriented or have the medical focus.
My Care Plan for Lynn Conner
My nursing care plan outline must consider all the necessary interventions and rationale for efficiency as discusses below.
In case of Lynn Corner, nutrition can be defined as the best form of promotional health practice since it defines the livelihood of an organism in terms of the capability to ingest and digest food required for necessary respiratory processes that aid in manufacture of energy. This implies that improper nutritional habits result into complications in the health systems of individuals since malnutrition leads to a consequent lack of energy, which increases the vulnerability to infection. This implies, therefore, that Lynn’s eating habits need to be carefully monitored so that he can have a well balanced diet and the food source that can help him recover quickly and energize him to undertake his activities with ease. Suffering from any type of deficiency can seriously harm a person. The Lynn’s state is not suitable for him and he is vulnerable to different diseases; therefore, the food and drinks should be free from any possible contamination (Marcinko & Hetico 2012).
The general consideration for Lynn’s nursing care plan is to provide essential interventions that include structuring the nutrition habits as well as minimizing the impact of social and political factors. This is through working out the possible course of action that would eliminate the barriers of influence of those factors that contribute to poor health like political instability and poor eating habits, which should be instead replaced with sound dietary formations. This might best explain why Lynn Corner’s nutrition habits need to be improved. Lynn seems to have no food allergies and had been referred to a dietician, who prescribed a dietary supplement as a panacea for his health improvement. However, there is a need to plan his dietary habits and encourage dependence on healthy meals. He needs motivation to slowly add more food variety to his diet. Since he does not harbour the ability of recognition of the essence of a healthy diet, there is a need to employ the resources of a caretaker to provide prescriptions of a balanced diet comprising of all the essential nutrients.
Work and Play
Participation in some forms of work and play are vital in the daily activities of Lynn. This is from the fact that play is vital for the dilation of veins to aid in fluency in the blood flow, which ensures a consistent supply of oxygen to other body parts. This is also vital in reducing the amount of stress oriented disorders since inconsistency in blood flow to the brain results in the change in the impulse rates, thus increasing vulnerability to infection. There is also the vitality of showing the importance of and the joy resulting from consistence in exercises. Therefore, there is a need to make Lynn involved in other physical activities like gym, jogging, and other simple plays in the process of rehabilitation. The essentiality of these activities should also be advanced to his home.
Maintaining a Safe Environment
Safety plays a major role in maintaining of healthy lifestyle. A safe environment is very important for a patient. “‘Environment’ refers to the internal (maintained by homeostasis against diseases causing physiological and psychological disturbances) and external influences (everything outside the body influencing health, including accident prevention).” Thus, maintaining a safe environment requires consideration and assessment of external and internal factors (such as sensory impairments, level of consciousness, confusion, and disability) (Roper & Tierney 2000).
In the case of Lynn Corner, the rehabilitation centre and his home should make him realize that the environment around him is safe and secure. This can assure him of the freedom to undertake the prescribed exercise in a secure and free environment. He needs to feel easy and not being forced to do anything that he feels insecure engaging in it.
Drugs and Alcohol
In this case, Lynn should be totally discouraged to smoke and take any other drug as this could have been the major cause of heart attack. There is a need to have something to replace the smoking, like engaging in swimming, which he so much likes. He needs to change friends, especially those who are involved in smoking, so that nothing can influence him to bounce back to drugs.
A Care Plan for Lynn Based on Roper, Logan & Tierney’s (2000) Model of Nursing
The current Roper, Logan and Tierney’s model of nursing seeks to define what living means and categorizes these discoveries into the sound healing process through promotional health. Thus, the model seeks to involve the patient more than the service providers, which culminates in the healthy process of life, where there is maximization of independence through complete assessment, leading to interventions that further support independence in areas that may prove difficult or impossible for the individuals on their own.
Lynn Corner will be assessed in terms of his proactivity to self care, where the structure affirmation could lead to the discovery of factors underpinning the mode of compliance to self care. This would be through the elucidation of self dependence factors that aim at initiating self mode of approach to the influence of the health concerns in the life of Lynn. Moreover, the self dependence factors would be used to gauge the viability of the model designed to cater for the life of the patient (Porter 2005).
The Activities of Living are themselves so much misunderstood or are assumed to have a limited scope, leading to dissatisfaction with the model, when one fails to recognize that the Activities of Living are more complex than the title would lead one to believe. This implies that the model is not a useful tool for application. Nurse's approach and organization of the care that nurses offer in clinical practice deepen their knowledge and understanding of the model and its application.
The Activities of Living applicable to Lynn corner’s case are listed below:
- Eating and drinking;
- Maintaining a safe environment;
- Working and playing;
- Drugs and Alcohol Abstinence.
By considering changes in the dependence-independence continuum, it will be possible to know if Lynn is either improving or failing to improve, providing evidence either for or against the current care plan and giving guidance as to the level of care he may require. This will bring results only if the assessment is done frequently and if it is combined with health improvement and health promotion.
After the assessment of Lynn on the capabilities of performance and on the gauge of dependence, independence is the factor that constraints any formation of a sound self healthcare system. So as to gain a proactive measure to improve the self health, and the care plan should be planned and carried out in mutual agreement between the nurse and the family members, while instilling the spirit of indulgence in the promotional health through self participation, which would lead to better results. Finally, evaluation of care will be done to determine whether or not the goals of care have been achieved, or if they need to be revised.