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White-Collar Crime Assignment: Questions and Answers
The state and federal agencies charged with regulation are the Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI, US Postal Inspection Service, US Secret Service, US Marshals Service, and the Internal Revenue Service Investigation Division. They are all charged with investigation into white-collar crimes and the enforcement of laws governing white-collar crimes.
Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current efforts to create and enforce those regulations.
Strengths in the efforts to enforce the regulations are the vast resources available to the enforcing authorities. There is also inter-agency cooperation that makes enforcement easy due to the large jurisdictions covered. Also, the inter-agency cooperation encourages sharing of resource databases hence increasing the effectiveness of the enforcing authorities.
The weakness includes the under-enforcement of the regulations especially due to limiting laws, for example, laws on individual rights. The “catch up” approach of government agencies compromises the enforcement as the agencies lag on current information about the industry.
What roles does the criminal justice system play in the control of white-collar crime?
The role of the justice system is to sentence the white-collar offender according to the laid down laws and procedures. The justice system also sanctions and fines on corporations involved in white-collar crime.
The justice system has been effective in curbing white-collar crimes; however, there have been recent increases in crime probably due to the prevailing economic meltdown.
Specific White Collar Crime Incident in Detail: Case of Michael Milken
Compare and contrast the case of antitrust violations in the petroleum industry with the case of Michael Milken.
The Sherman Antitrust law of 1890 was enacted to combat anticompetitive practices, reduce market domination by individual corporations, and preserve unfettered competition as the rule of trade. Michael Milken was implicated in insider trading while most of the antitrust violations in the petroleum industry range from price-fixing and exclusive dealing agreements. However, both sets of violations are anti-competitive as Milken’s stock parking and stock manipulation discouraged competition.
What are the reasons that the promise of equal justice for street offenders and white-collar offenders so often fails to come true?
The ideal of equal justice between white-collar and street offenders is a sham According to Reinman, the public tends to be indifferent to business crime or even to sympathize with the offenders who have been caught”.
The white-collar offenders unlike street offenders occupy respected positions in society and often work in powerful companies hence one of the reasons for the inequality.
White-collar crimes most of the time are intermingled with legitimate economic conduct posing difficulty in prosecuting such crimes, unlike the street offenders.
Do you agree with the way corporate violence is defined in this chapter?
Yes, David Friedrichs has argued that corporate violence is different from other forms of interpersonal violence in at least four distinct ways. Corporate violence is indirect in that one person is not directly assaulting another; second, corporate violence, by its very nature, is collective; third, the effects of corporate violence are usually difficult to link to the policy or policies that created them; fourth, corporate violence is motivated by a desire to maximize profits while reducing costs. All the above should be rightly considered corporate violence as they may be directly or indirectly associated with harmful or social injury.
Which occupational crime do you consider most serious, and why?
Crimes of professionals not only lead to exploitation of the client but in some cases may lead to grave harm to the client, for example, white-collar crime by medical professionals.
Which state crime do you consider the most serious one, and why?
War crimes are the most serious as it causes gross harm to the citizens with little or no way of keeping it in check.
Of all the forms of finance crimes discussed, which do you consider the most serious, and why?
Securities fraud induces investors to make transactions based on inaccurate information hence may be responsible for large financial losses. It can also include theft from investors.
Of all forms of Contrepreneurial crime discussed, which do you consider the most serious, and why?
Scams that pose as legitimate businesses; may mislead investors into making an investment in nonexistent businesses with resultant loss of money invested.
How should the entrepreneurial crime be punished?
Like other forms of white-collar crimes, entrepreneurial crimes should be punished with fines, compensations, and jail time where need be.
- Marx and Engels accused capitalist corporations of all but which of the following? Willful homicide of workers
- A combination of centrally owned firms operating in different fields is known as a Conglomerate
- In 1993, Wal-Mart was found guilty of “predatory pricing,” which is: pricing certain items below cost to destroy smaller competitors
- Illegal activities associated with small retail businesses are likely to include all but which of the following? Evasion of sales taxes
- Which of the following terms applies to illegal activities carried out by officials and politicians for direct personal gain? Political white-collar crime
- Governmental crime, as distinct from the traditional notion of political crime, is exemplified by state-agency illegal surveillance
- State-corporate crime is characterized as a _____ form of white-collar crime. Hybrid
- The term “finance crime” is used in this text to refer to a(n): large-scale illegality which occurs in the world of finance
- Which of the pairs below is a match? Enterprise crime/organized crime
- Which of the following criminal activities has the Mafia not been traditionally associated with? Check-kiting