It is important to emphasize the fact that the lion's share of crimes among the population is committed by substance abused people. For that reason, it is rational to implement the preventive measures into practice, which are aimed at straightening control over the drug abuse issues in the U.S.
First and foremost, drug dealers should be punished more seriously that requires the federal government to allocate more monetary funds to the problem of drug dealers' detection, their imprisoning, and fair punishment. This problem is extremely urgent for modern society, and this urgency is largely supported by the following statistical and medical information.
Marijuana is the most popular and commonly consumed illegal drug in the United States. The principle of its influence on the human body is the following. The delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that is produced by the Cannabis sativa plant causes the intoxication of the human body and provokes impaired coordination, memory loss for a certain period of time along with feelings of relaxation and pleasure. There are two forms of Marijuana consumption such as smoking and eating.
In the first case, the smoke irritates the lungs and may cause lung cancer. It can also cause stomach cancer (Wood et al., 2003). One more fundamental issue concerning Marijuana consumption is that it is often the first illegal drug that is used by people later followed by more dangerous and powerful drugs such as heroin and cocaine, which are required by the human body.
While talking about cocaine, it is necessary to rely on statistical data. There were more than 1.5 million people in 1997 in the USA who consumed cocaine (NHS and drug abuse, 2010). The effect of cocaine and its duration depends on the way of consumption. Among the most common effects of cocaine consumption are the following: increased alertness and pleasure, paranoia, heart stroke or damage caused by the blood vessels constriction, irregular heart beating, and, finally, death. The heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain are the organs of the human body that are the most open to cocaine injury.
One more popular drug among the youth in the USA is heroin that is also known as a horse or smack. According to the statistical data collected by the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse in 1997, there were more than 2.4 million people in the U.S., who used heroin. The majority of them were people under 26. It is crucial to emphasize the fact that the number of HIV/AIDS-infected these people increases rapidly because of the dirty needles that are commonly used for making drug injections.
Heroin consumption causes the following effects: pleasure, slowed breathing and drowsiness, abdominal cramps, confusion, aches, sweating, and diarrhea. Overdose of heroin (and also of cocaine) usually leads to death, caused by the decreased breathing.
It is also vital to consider methamphetamines, as a popular drug in Western countries. It is also called meth, speed, crystal, crank, and ice. Like all of the drugs, discussed above, it gives a sense of pleasure to a drug user, and also among its consequences are alertness increasing and appetite decreasing. Methamphetamines can be consumed by injections, smoking, eating, and snorting. With respect to the long-term effects of methamphetamines' consumption, the following should be considered: depression, weight loss, teeth destruction, abdominal cramps, stroke, high blood pressure, finally, death.
Tobacco and Alcohol
The next issue concerns additional funding, which is required for the criminalization of tobacco and alcohol, which have not become the criminalized substances in the U.S. yet.
While referring to tobacco, it is essential to pay additional attention to the fact that every year more than 1 million deaths worldwide are caused by tobacco abuse, and the general turnover in this profitable industry is more than 100 billion. Additionally, people have to pay significant amounts of money for healthcare, caused by the diseases related to tobacco consumption (Copeman, 2003).
A number of diseases are caused by tobacco consumption, including heart diseases, lung cancer, peptic ulcer disease, stroke, and emphysema. Also, such negative aspects of everyday life as bad looking, depressions, sleep disturbances, and anxiety may be caused by smoking.
While considering alcohol abuse, it is indispensable to stress on the following issues. Firstly, every day "pick me up" with some slight quantity of alcohol may lead to alcoholism. Alcoholism is a serious mental disease, which may additionally lead to heart enlargement and cancer of the stomach, pancreas, and esophagus. Moreover, misuse of alcohol leads to more than half of yearly traffic accidents with the lethal outcome. The general cost of alcohol abuse all over the world is more than $150 billion annually.
It is obvious that such a revenue rate is the meaningful index for the manufacturers of tobacco and alcohol. That is why they are interested in the legality of their business and the payment of taxes to the treasury of the country. Nevertheless, the overall negative impact on the social life, anuses, and crime commitment, caused by these substances should be prevented by the criminalization of their use.
Human Trafficking and Prostitution
The last issue, which needs additional funding, is the death penalty measure implementing for human trafficking. At the moment, human trafficking is considered as one of the fastest-growing criminal industry, which is rapidly developing all over the world. Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation and violence, exploitation as a labor force, or as the donors of human organs. In all three cases, the pander gets enormous incomes via human pain and suffering (Oliver, 1992).
It is suggested that prostitution comes as a result of trafficking women and children. It is a global problem of monumental scale that cannot be considered as "the oldest profession" and as a fruitful collaboration between wealthy male and female, who wants to earn some money. It is obvious that such a social problem should be eradicated on a global scale. Otherwise, if some countries offer such a possibility and their governments support prostitution legality, there would be those people who would like to earn big money on both women and panders.
The trafficking of women in the U.S. should be stopped by the common work of governments of all countries which are involved in this problem. The rigidity of penalty for those people who organize, execute and consciously participate in the human trafficking process should be toughened to the rate of capital punishment (in the U.S. in particular). It cannot be tolerated that women, who are potential mothers of future human generation, are sexually exploited in order of getting sexual satisfaction by some males and earning money by panders.
It is not acceptable for the social life of different folks and cultures to use the "services" of prostitutes because those may crush families and human lives, make a negative impact on human health and destroy the moral principles of a human being.
The last aspect against human trafficking is that we live in the 21st century when human civilization has achieved high results in all spheres of human life. Thus, after being successful in different areas, the main things to be saved are humanity, morality, and spirituality of a human being.
Directed Patrol for Drugs and Guns
The core essence of practical application for the Directed Patrol program implies the use of aggressive traffic enforcement for illegal weapons and drugs seized in high-crime areas. In the case of successful operations, violent crime may be reduced. In 1997, the own version of such a program was practically implemented by the Indianapolis Police Department.
The main purpose of directed patrol is the reduction of crime rate in high-crime areas, in particular violent firearm-related and substance-abuse related crimes. With the help of such a proactive approach, the police officers are provided with an option of concentration of their attention on high-risk offenders and suspicious activities. In addition, the deterrent effect in high-crime areas may be achieved in such a manner. In this case, the option of removing drugs and illegal guns from dangerous offenders in the streets can be succeeded.
The theoretical approach towards directed police patrol suggests a direct impact on reducing criminal activity. In the case of increasing the general number of police, the negative effect on the crime commitment rate would be done. In addition, with the increasing level of police high-crime areas, stronger crime-control may be achieved. The proactive strategy of policing is applied by a directed police patrol. In this manner, the crime preventive measures are implemented into practice. This tactic may be opposed to the strategy, in which arrest take its place after the crime.
In order to minimize the rate of crime, the core focus of directed police patrol should be made on the deterrence theories: specific, general, and incapacitation (Program Indianapolis (Ind.) Directed Patrol, 2012)
Deferred Sentencing for Drug Offenders
It is possible to define the deferred sentence as a type of punishment, which is suspended for the term of probation after the crime. In the case when the stipulations surrounding probation is fulfilled by the defendant, the judge realizes the possibility of throwing out the guilty plea and sentence. In other words, the incident may be cleared from the sentence. If probation is violated by the defendant, the full sentence will be executed by the court immediately.
In the U.S., in order to receive a deferred sentence, the defendant should plead himself guilty to at least one of the crimes, in which one was accused. In the majority of cases, the first time offenders are given deferred sentences. Also, they may be allowed for offenders, who committed relatively minor crimes, but in the case of drugs, the choice for deferring a particular sentence is left to the discretion of the judge.
In New York State, the other name for the similar process is ACOD: adjournment in contemplation of dismissal. In this situation, the potential sentence for the term of six months is executed. In the case of leaving the defendant out of trouble, the dropping of the charge is made without the offense's public record. It should be noted that there are many differences between ACOD and deferred sentences. One of them is the fact that the guilt or adopted plea of guilty is required by ACOD and is an obligatory issue for a deferred sentence.
Chemical Castration for Sex Offenders
It is possible to define the chemical castration as the medication administration, which is established for the reduction of sexual activity and libido. The core difference between surgical castration and chemical castration is that the chemical one does not imply the removal of the testicles or ovaries through an incision in the human body. In other words, the person is not actually castrated by chemical castration, and it is not a form of sterilization. Chemical castration is mainly applied as a tool of judicial or public policy for the purpose of punishing sex offenders, even while not taking into account the human rights and probability of side effects.
Student Behavior Modification Program
It is possible to define the student behavior modification program as the practical application of behavior change techniques, mainly aimed at increase/decrease in the frequency of the behavior. As an example, the tone can consider the reactions and behaviors of individual stimulation applying the tools of adaptive behavior or positive and negative reinforcement or the particular behavior reduction through punishment, extinction, or satiation. The modification of behavior notion was revised according to the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) form.
The functional behavior assessment is the main basis of behavior analysis. With its help, the core behavior modifications are formed. The set of these therapy techniques and approaches are the specific methods, which are directed for the correction issue.
In accordance with the definition, developed by Martin and Pear, behavior modification has seven central characteristics (Martin, 2007). They are the following:
- In terms of behavior, it is possible to measure the defining problems.
- The main purpose of the practical application of treatment techniques involves changing and improvement of the current environment for the individual in order to assist in better functioning.
- It is possible to precisely describe the methods and rationales of behavior modification.
- Behavior modification is widely used in everyday life in different areas of human activity, especially in education institutions among students.
- The principles of learning are the basis of particular techniques (that is why such technique is effective among students). Respondent conditioning and operant conditioning are placed among these principles.
- The strong emphasis of behavior modification is put on the scientific demonstration of the fact that responsibility for specific behavior change lies in a particular technique.
- Every student involved in the behavior modification program is responsible for its results.
Big Brother and Big Sister Programs
First of all, it is necessary to put emphasis on the fact that Big Brothers Big Sisters of America is a non-profit organization, which has the main mission to help children in reaching their potential through interpersonal relationships with mentors, who make a positive impact on youth. The main specific feature of these relations is that they are professionally supported.
This organization is one of the largest and oldest establishments in the U.S., which practice mentoring. Children of all ages are mentored by Big Brothers Big Sisters of America in communities across the country.
In accordance with the statistical data gathered in terms of up to 18 months and the comparative analysis carried out among children, who took part in the program, and with those, who did not participate in it, the following conclusions concerning the program effectiveness may be done.
- 46% of participants are less likely to use drugs;
- 27% of participants are less likely to use alcohol;
- 52% of participants are less likely to skip classes at school;
- 33% of participants are less likely to abuse others (Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, 2012).
The tapping of the telephone line may be defined as the process of monitoring the telephone and internet conversations exercised by the third party while applying the covert means. Lawful interception is the legal wiretapping made by the government agency. There are two forms of wiretapping - passive and active. The records of traffic are monitored by passive wiretapping.
The other types of affecting the traffic are conducted with the help of active wiretapping. Strict and official control is carried out over the lawful interception in order to protect the privacy of people. From the theoretical point of view, there is a need for the court authorization of the telephone tapping. In addition, this may be approved only in the case when there are evident facts, proving that there is no other possibility of subversive or crime activity detecting (Kelling et al., 1974).
While referring to the random patrol, it is important to put an emphasis on the fact that it has been considered as the cornerstone of policing for a durable period of time. After the modern-day policy has been invented, the random patrol has been considered by both the police officers and by the citizens as the effective approach towards determining criminal activities and disclosing disorderly conduct. During the last three decades, random control has been criticized in the light of the concern of its efficiency and effectiveness.
The practical application of the set of strategies is the most effective. The efficient way of random control practical application is possible due to the fact that the limited quantity of the sources is available on one police station.
The direction to patrolling the hot spots in the city by officers while leaving low crime areas without control is not as effective and safe approach as the use of the limited quantity of officers in each part of the city.
While referring to hiring an additional quantity of detectives as an effective tool of crime control, it is necessary to rely on random control, when the additional quantity of officers and detectives is needed. So this tool is an effective one. Moreover, the professionalism of the detectives should be high. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches must be applied in the effective crime deterring rate achievement.
It is not possible to consider plea bargaining as a fair approach due to the fact that some of the defendants' rights are forfeited by it, in particular the right of the trial by jury. The criminals are allowed to defeat their justice by the plea bargain, and in such a way, the public's respect towards the criminal justice process is also defeated. The unjust sentences are caused by the practice of giving criminals, who plea bargain with lighter sentences. Finally, the pleading guilty for the innocent people probability is risen by plea bargaining.
DARE Program is an international education program, which was adopted by Daryl Gates. Its core purpose is the prevention of uncontrolled drug use.
The process of active social and economic transformations, which has taken its place during the last decades in the U.S. society, has caused the new drug situation and led to the principally new drug culture.
At the moment, the stage of drug use may be considered as the increasing of its popularization among the mass and teenagers in particular. Drug addiction has become not only the problem of youth, but it has also occupied the group of adult dope-fiends. After using drugs at a juvenile age, people often continue to use them in adulthood.
Every year the quantity of drug consumers increases rapidly. That is why there is a need of struggling against drugs. Other reasons include the popularity of non-medical narcotic drug substances consumed by young people and the danger of narcotics and drug-related crime.
According to the experts' opinions, the number of drug consumers is expected to increase twofold in the given age group before 2015. That is why a particular preoccupation is expected among the youth and under-aged. 2/3 of drug consumers are younger than 20.
Nowadays, the quantity of drug-related crimes has increased. Thus, it became necessary to strengthen the law enforcement agency's work. At the same time, there is a need for the practical application of the current legislation, especially the efforts to attract those people, who are already abused by drugs to the examination and medical treatment.
All the above-listed factors outline the importance of narcotics investigation for improving the efficiency of the practical application of specific criminological measures. These measures are mainly aimed at the prevention of this negative and extremely dangerous phenomenon.
The urgency of the DARE Program is characterized by the deep research of the narcotics problems among minor and young people, who are not informed properly by the special literature. That is why it is possible to improve the situation by the discussion of disputable questions, which determine a policy in the publicly warning area. This area relies on the negative effects of drug addiction.
DARE Program incorporates a complex approach towards minor and young people narcotization in the light of social, legal, and criminological aspects. These issues allow forming of the youth subcultures and grounding the core drug addiction tendencies. In addition, it is possible to explore the factors, which make their impact on the socialization of young people's personalities.
Finally, such an approach allows defining the features of preventive measures, which are directed at the drug addiction among minor and young people, and for developing the set of suggestions, concerning the legislation's improvement in the area of drugs' use.
The experts of criminology (criminal law, administrative law, forensic science, and international law), pedagogy and psychology, sociology, legal statistics, and medicines have compiled the theoretical basis of research. The significance of the DARE Program implies the suggestions to the individual and general drug addiction prevention, in a certain measure, to develop and complement the section of criminology, the theory of warning of crimes.
In conclusion, all the above-listed methods, which are commonly applied in the crime investigation, include phone line tapping, random patrol, hiring more detectives, abolishing plea bargaining, and DARE Program. They are effective but may have failures because of the significant role of the human factor.
While relying on the methods of crime investigation, which are beyond the justice system, it is necessary to take forensic toxicology into consideration. It is the method applied in crime control. It is the practical science, which is integrated into toxicology, analytical chemistry, and pharmacology, in order to disclose the death from drug use and poisoning.
It is used in the legal and medical research of death. The main purpose of forensic toxicology is to get results and interpret them rather than practically apply for the legal effect. There are different approaches, techniques, and samples, which are practiced in the toxicological analysis (Dickson, 1994).
The main issues, which should be taken into account by the forensic toxicologist, are the investigations and the records of physical symptoms in addition to the aspects of the evidence, which may be collected at the crime scene. The main need for this evidence is the narrowing of the search. Among these evident examples, it is possible to consider the powders, trace residue, pill bottles, as well as other types of available chemicals.
After receiving information about the crime and the samples of all substances, the primary task for the forensic toxicologist is to determine the presence of evident chemicals in the body and their concentration. In addition, the probable outcome of these substances on the individual should be determined and evaluated by the forensic toxicologist (Oliver, 1992).
It is essential to pay additional attention to the fact that it is a complicated task to determine these chemicals in the human body for the forensic toxicologist because of the natural processes, which take place in the human body, and the change of the original drug and chemical form. For instance, it is possible to say that heroin is metabolized into other forms of a substance such as morphine.
That is why in such cases, chemical purity and additional injection marks are required for the diagnosis confirmation. In addition, the dispersal of substance through the body may dilute it. As a consequence, if some pill or drug may be consumed in grams or even milligrams, the separate sample under study can be presented in nanograms or micrograms (Molina, 2009).
Samples Applied in the Forensic Toxicology
While taking into account the urine sample, it should be mentioned that it is taken from the bladder and may be provided after postmortem.
The blood sample is taken approximately in the quantity of 10-ml. It is considered as one of the most sufficient for the usual toxic materials screening and confirmation. This form of tester offers information for the toxicologist concerning the influence of the subject with a particular substance at the period of gathering. That is why such a sample is applied in the cases of drunk driving when there is a need for measuring alcohol in the blood (Ballantyne, 1974).
While taking into account the hair sample, it must be emphasized that it is mainly applied for measuring the average to the high or long-term dosage of a particular substance in substance abuse cases. The reason is that when there is durative substance abuse, the chemicals, which are present in the bloodstream, may be moved to the hair stored in the follicle or growing.
That is why, in this case, the forensic toxicologist is provided with a possibility of determining the timeline of the particular drug or substance consumption. It is possible to outline the process of the timeframe evaluation in the following manner. While taking into account the fact that the approximate growth of hair per month is 1.5 cm, it is possible to make the cross segments from the different units of hair and follicle and estimate the substance ingestion time (Kalipatnapu, 2012).
It is crucial to pay additional attention to the fact that using a hair sample for the drug testing is not popular among the population due to the following reasons: there is a trend that in the coarser and darker hair the same quantity of drugs would be represented in more significant size. In other words, if the same drug amount is consumed by two people, more drugs would be found in the coarser and darker hair. That is why the racial prejudice in material tests with samples of hair is an urgent question for the scholars (Mieczkowski, 1999).
In the case of oral fluid, it is necessary to outline the following information. First of all, it is important to put emphasis on the fact that salvia is another term for oral fluid, which is commonly used. It is the element of oral fluid. The oral fluid term, itself, is also a proper one. It is possible to say that all drugs, which are found in oral fluid, are the same as in the blood. Their concentration in the oral fluid can be also evaluated.
Some scalars consider that the salvia is the ultra-filtrate of blood. That is why they think that the pass of drugs to oral fluid is a process mostly done through passive diffusion. The significance of oral fluid testing in forensic toxicology implies the evaluation of current drug use. As an example of the practical application of oral fluids testing, it is possible to consider the cases, which are under the impact of ingredients investigation (Lowry, 1979).
Among other samples of forensic toxicology, it is possible to take into consideration all those, which were collected in the process of the autopsy. Commonly, the gastric content of the deceased is used for finding the liquids or undigested pills, which were consumed by the person before the death and might have an impact on the health condition or led to the lethal outcome. In the cases when the body is severely decomposed, and it is not possible to take the traditional samples, the investigation of vitreous humor from the eye can be carried out. In addition, the commonly investigated organs are the spleen, brain, and liver (Levin, 2003).
There is one more important aspect that should be taken into account and practically applied by the toxicologist. It is the investigation of the stomach. Such investigation may make available qualitative facts about the presence of abnormal constituents and the last meal nature, as well. Stomach investigation is practiced as a guide to death time as the cell types from plant food may be applied for the last meal of the investigated victim. In its turn, this may assist in evaluating the last location or actions before death.
Among the cell types, which can be examined in the light of stomach investigation, are the following: silica bodies (cereal grasses and bamboos), druse-crystals (citrus, beets, spinach); starch grains (potatoes and other tubers), raphide-crystals (pineapple), and sclereids (pears) (Dickison, 2000).
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Drugs Detection and Classification
The process of identifying pharmaceuticals and drugs and in biological samples is carried out in the following manner: compound initial screening, confirmation, and, finally, the quantitation of compound. There are various analytical techniques applied for screening and confirmation. The practical application of each method depends on the substance, which is expected to be found in the body.
Besides, the material, which is tested, is a determining factor for the choice of method. In the case of the analysis of biological samples, the complex approach should be used because compound metabolism, as well as conjugation, is important (Nelson, 2010).
Among the key methods applied for drug detection and classification, there are the following three: gas chromatography, detection of metals, and non-volatile organic substances detection.
When the volatile-organic compounds are sluggish, gas-liquid chromatography is applied. The metals' detection is carried out by the practical application of thermal or chemical oxidation or the destruction of the organic matrix. The X-ray diffraction, Reinsch test, or emission-spectroscopy are applied in these cases.
The detection of non-volatile organic substances is performed by immunoassay, thin-layer chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography (Dart, 2003).
In conclusion, it is important to emphasize the fact that the main purpose of toxicology is to identify and evaluate the effects of toxic chemicals on the human body. Forensic toxicology is mainly practiced in medical and legal investigations in the following cases: drug use, poisoning, or death investigation.
Forensic toxicologists are employed both in the medical industries and judicial entities. They provide the courts with invaluable information concerning the poisons. The information provided by the forensic toxicologist is applied for vital evidence in criminal proceedings.
Ethics and Justice
First of all, it is necessary to put emphasis on ethics and justice in the light of the public sector is a broad topic. In general, ethics is the morality-addressing branch of philosophy. In the public sector, the key purpose of ethics is addressing the main premise of the public administrators to be the "steward" to people. In turn, this implies moral justifications of the actions, carried out and the decisions, made by the employees of non-profit organizations.
Also, it is possible to consider ethics as the standard of accountability, which provides the public with a possibility of scrutinizing the activities carried out by the members of non-profit organizations. In the majority of cases, these decisions are based on the ethical standards that, in turn, enable the employees of non-profit organizations to act in accordance with the public approach of correctness. That is why the application of ethical standards allows the public administrators to act not in accordance with the internal set of standards, but to take into account the principles, which are inherent to the social group.
The next practical application of the ethical standards to the public administrators' practices implies the creation of a more open atmosphere in the governmental organization while correcting their personal lives conduct according to these principles.
In the scope of research, it is essential to pay additional attention to the fact that ethical behavior in the public sector is the key success factor of public administrators' activities. The reason is that the core concept of their profession implies collaboration with people and that, in turn, requires meeting the core needs and moral standards of the mass.
Morality has a qualitative and esoteric nature. That is why it is a complicated task to measure its quantitative performance. Moreover, in order to understand the meaning of ethical issues and the morality standards for the public administrators, a deep analysis of the theoretical approach towards that issue is required.
According to the historical development of morality and ethics and their interrelation, it is important to mention that ethics is the product of social morality, which is mainly influenced by the following aspects of social life: religion, national standards of living, the political approach towards governing the country, the military situation and the character of the social life, etc. That is why the core requirements of morality and ethics and the product of morality may be different in different historical periods and nations.
While taking into account the agency of public administrations related to the ethical standards and their practical application in the current society, it is possible to say that the core conception of the public administrators' professional activity and its background implies the collaboration with the mass. That is why people, which are employed in the public administration sector, are expected to be the representatives of the social group with the highest ethical standards.
Usually, people oppose the "good" and "right" characteristics of ethical behavior to the "wrong" or "bad" actions, which violate these standards. The core questions of amoral behavior, which people face while collaborating with the public sector organizations, may be represented by the following examples: whether it is ethically to pay a bribe for being provided with a positive environment for doing business or not; whether it is acceptable, from the ethical point of view, to carry out some personal business activities while being employed in the nonprofit organization of the public sector or not, etc.
That is why when the violation of moral principles and legislation takes place, there is a need for the urgent reaction for such actions such as the punishment of law violators and the prevention of the same situations. In these cases, it is possible to apply such a measure as ethical whistleblowing in the public sector. Harrington draws an analogy between the whistleblowing and association in the mass with the cases when the public officer catches crime and tends to attract the mass attention to the urgency of the situation and to the need of its stopping (Harrington, 1991).
While taking into account the ethical side of the public administrators' activity, it is crucial to pay additional attention to the fact that whistleblowing must be applied in cases of violation of the common ethical standards. Whistleblowing and ethics are interrelated notions due to the fact that the persons' understanding of wrongdoing is represented by whistleblowing. This is how the individual understands the harmful influence of public administrators' activity and the way this action interferes with basic human rights or detracts from the common good in an unfair manner (Burns, 2007).
Another practical application of whistleblowing implies the calling upon the virtues, for example, for the punishing experience of standing up for the basic principles. At the same time, there is another side of the whistleblowing issue. There are cases of retaliation for the whistleblowers. Even while taking into account the fact that the legislation should protect such people, there are cases, when the whistleblower may be forced out of public office or marginalized. At the same time, there are cases, when the whistleblowers get a higher position in their career and are supported in such action by the public.
In reality, it is important to pay additional attention to the fact that whistleblowing in the public sector should be based on ethical principles and should not be applied as a tool for personal and mercantilist (not ideological) goal achievement. It should be based on social morality and ethical standards. Only in this case, the individual, which has carried out the whistleblowing, will not be punished with the negative social perception of one's actions.
In summary, it should be noted that behavior based on the principles of high morality is the key success factor for building a developed society with high living standards and requirements (Brenner & Molander, 1997).
In the modern world, which is full of competition and an economic approach towards life and its core values, the principles of ethics should be popularized and promoted. That is mainly caused by the increasing demand for human relations but not for the "monetary transactions" instead of humanity. Human being is a social being, which formed by the environment that one inhabits. That is why in order to provide the future generations with the moral values of life, people should follow it.
Furthermore, the dynamics of the ethical approach towards social life should be determined by the public sector organizations.