In the last decade the crime rates have been constantly increasing. It has been observed that the criminals have come up with cunning ways of committing crimes and the security forces have proved to be unable to match the sophisticated techniques used by criminals. Many researchers have laid an emphasis on crimes research,, but little achievement has been made. The criminals, who commit crimes today, range from the juvenile criminals to mature criminals involved in serious violations. These categories tend to exhibit different characteristics. In order to successfully investigate crimes, criminologists study behaviors of criminals.

Some of the top criminals may have started their criminal activities at a young age and gradually developed to become senior criminals. While some factors such as lack of good parenting may predispose an individual to committing crimes, it does not imply that committing crimes should be taken as the only option. This paper will delve into James "Whitey" Bugler criminal activities.

Crime Overview of James "Whitey" Bugler

James "Whitey" Bugler was born in 1929. In his childhood years, people nicknamed him as Whitey because of his white hair. James "Whitey" Bugler lived and grew up in public housing project situated in South Boston. James character started to manifest itself at his young age he was seen as a troublemaker in the family (The arrest, trial of James 'Whitey' Bulger, 2011). At one point, he had decided to escape from home when he was only 10 years. James started his street life from engaging in crimes and established links with fierce gangs when he was 14. His first arrest was at the same age.

Further, James started engaging in robbery and stealing and building his criminal reputation. He had managed to join the Shamrocks, and the law enforcers constantly arrested him for street fighting, stealing and robbery. As a result of his continued engagement in crimes, James was sentenced for juvenile crimes.

He joined the Air Forces in 1948. However, he had changed his character and continued with his criminal activities. He engaged in an assault and did not attend to his duties regularly. This resulted to his dismissal from the forces in 1952, and his following return to Massachusetts. This obstacle pushed James to continue with his unlawful acts.

After his dismissal, he continued engaging in a series of criminal activities. He committed bank robberies in Indiana and Rhode Island. He also started engaging himself in carjacking and robbery with violence. The police arrested James in 1956, and the court ruled that he had to serve 25 years in jail. However, he volunteered to engage in research and his sentence was reduced. He was released in 1966 after serving only 9 years of his sentence. The prison life had not brought any positive effect to James, and he returned to Boston to his crime life.

James joined the Winter Hill Gang in 1972, after the killing of Donald Killen. He rose to the top ranks with ease and became the gang leader. He controlled a large portion of the drug dealers and other criminals in Boston. He committed his first killing during the Killen -Mullen war. He planned to kill Paulie but, unfortunately, he killed Paulies twin brother Donald (Cullen & Murphy, 2013).

As a criminal, James mostly committed killings of his fellow criminals and rarely other people. He never wanted any opposition and he did everything to eliminate it. As a result, he continued killing his fellow criminals who posed a threat. After killing Donald and Tommy he made a cover up with an informant who had issues with Tommy.

In 1980-s Louis Littif engaged himself in a series of killings without informing Bulger. Their relationship became sour as Louis vowed to continue with his killings. Bulger could not wait and watch Lous doing things without his permission. He gave him several warnings, but Lois did not heed to them. James expelled him as a bookmaker and later killed him (Cullen & Murphy, 2013).

The FBI recruited James as their key informant in their war against crime in Boston. James saw this as an opportunity to eliminate all his threats and build a strong criminal gang. They provided crucial details that led to arrest of their opponents. James targeted the Partrica crime family and worked to see the group fall apart.

James also engaged in drug dealing businesses (Cullen & Murphy, 2013). He started summoning all the drug dealers and asked for huge sums of money in order to offer them protection. He continued with this business for a long time. It should be noted that James engaged in a series of crimes which, totaled up to 18 in his life as a criminal. He also engaged in other types of criminal activities such as hijacking, assault and robbery with violence.

Risk Factors that Made James "Whitey" Bugler Commit Crimes

James "Whitey" Bugler engagement in criminal activities could be related to a number of factors. Some of these factors include poor parenting, peer influence, lack of strict punishment among others (Bruno, 2014). At first, poor parenting played a significant role in his engagement, in criminal activities. From his early childhood, James was considered a trouble maker in the family. This could indicate that his parents did not take up their full responsibility of disciplining him at that age. While we cannot fully blame his parents for contributing to his engagement in criminal activities, we cannot ignore the fact that they had a responsibility of shaping the character of their son at an early age. The parenting method plays a significant role in shaping the life of an individual (Bruno, 2014). Researchers have proved that children who do not receive good parenting at their early age may end up engaging in crimes or other misdemeanors. This could have been the case with James "Whitey" Bugler. It is worth noting that parenting instills good morals to individuals, and children who have been brought up in the right way tend to embrace morality and good behaviors.

Peer pressure presents another risk factor that could have led James "Whitey" Bugler to commit crimes and engagement with the street gangs could have been the main reason here. The street gangs always engaged in criminal activities such as robbery with violence and stealing. Since James "Whitey" Bugler had opted to join these gangs, he had no option but to start engaging himself in criminal activities. He needed to identify himself with the group and for this reason he had to engage in crimes.

Poverty is another major risk factor that can provoke an individual to commit a crime. James early engagement in crimes clearly indicates that he came from a poor background It could be stated that James engaged in crimes so that he could be able to sustain himself (Bruno, 2014).

Lack of proper rehabilitation systems is another risk factor that could have led James to commit crimes. James did not receive rehabilitation after he committed his first crime. This could explain the reason he continuously engaged in crimes afterwards (Bruno, 2014). In one way or the other, mode of punishment that James underwent through, could not serve as a deter for committing future crimes.

Drug or Mental Cause of the Behavior

Drugs and mental conditions can pose a major risk factors that expose an individual to committing crimes. In the case of James "Whitey" Bugler it can be observed that drugs could have influenced his behavior. While he served his sentence, James decided to take part in a research that aimed at finding a cure for Schizophrenia.

The CIA believed that the LCD could be used for interrogation purposes as well as providing long term cure for schizophrenia. The drug could release the memories of individuals and it also had the ability to bring self- awareness. It is documented that the investigators administered this drug to the volunteers in small doses for a long time (Bruno, 2014).

However, the drug caused a lot of effects to the volunteers. Even after a few years after taking the drug, James could still feel its effects. In the course of the research the situation worsened and the test persons experienced mental disorders. This fact serves as another reason for James to continue his criminal life (Survival Of The Fittest: Whitey and Billy Bulger, 2010).

Theories that Relate to James Behavior

Therefore, engagement of James in criminal activities can be explained by several theories. Many researchers, who have done research on criminology, have tried to relate commitment of crimes to some theories such as social class theory (Marsh & Melville, 2006). The theory states that the inequality that exists in the society could expose one to commitment of crimes. Differences between social classes make some individuals who pertain to the lower social class to live a vulnerable life (Marsh & Melville, 2006).

These people live a life full of jealousy and desire to achieve upper social class. It is unfortunate that these individuals have limited opportunities they do not have jobs or other reliable sources of incomes (Marsh & Melville, 2006). The lower class feels jealousy when they find that their counterparts enjoy the life while they continue to anguish in poverty (Marsh & Melville, 2006). These people turn into criminal activities so that they can be able to get money. This theory clearly explains the reason James decided to engage in crime at an early age. From his background, it is eminent that his parents were not rich. (Marsh & Melville, 2006). His attempt to escape from home at an early age could indicate that he did not enjoy the life at home due to poverty.

Ethics and Argumentation

Ethics refers to the set of accepted behaviors that govern behaviors of individuals in the society. Ethics incorporates the morality as one of its key components. In this case, ethics can as well be defined as the moral standards that dictate how an individual behaves and acts.

Argumentation can be referred as the way people form different opinions on certain issue. In argumentation, some people provide opposing opinion while others support a certain issue. In this paper, the focus will be upon capital sentence as an ethical issue.

Capital punishment poses an ethical issue in the world of today. Many individuals have fallen victims of capital punishment, which raises the issue of morality. Individuals who undergo capital punishment are sentenced to death as the highest measure of punishment. Therefore, the issue of capital sentence is one of the ethical issues that have raised numerous controversial debate in the society.

Individuals, who support capital punishment, argue that the individuals who kill others do not deserve to live since they take away the lives of others (Henderson & Flanders, 2000). The proponents of capital sentencing believe that the only way to punish a criminal should be subjecting him to a punishment similar to the crime that he committed.

However, the opponents of capital punishment voice different opinions. They argue that governments do not have the right to take away lives. This argument is based on the Biblical teachings, which condemn killing (Henderson & Flanders, 2000). In addition, the opponents believe that the capital sentence is an unethical act. The whole process of capital sentencing has been faced with issues such as discrimination and tribalism. This makes the whole process unethical and immoral (Henderson & Flanders, 2000). Opponents also believe that capital punishment present is a lenient form of punishment for criminals as compared to long duration imprisonment.

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