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Initially, it must be recognized that a great part of human life depends on the Internet and computers; they are used mainly for communication (email services, mobile phones communication, text-messages), transport systems (traffic control systems, use of motor vehicle, systems of aircraft navigation), governmental processes (records of birth or death statistics, social security systems, keeping licensing and tax documents), financial operations (maintaining bank accounts, loans, transfers), medicine (equipment, medical help), and education (virtual classrooms, online research articles).
One can only imagine how much information is kept on personal computers. It is a very controversial question about the security of the data in the systems where they are stored. Cybersecurity is the information protection system, on which people rely every day at their homes, works, and schools.
3 Main Principles of the Information Security
Three main principles of information security are:
Confidentiality means that any information, which is secret or supposed to be confidential, should be accessible only to the authorized users. Integrity is a principle of considering information to be safe and integrated. It means that information cannot be changed from its original state. Availability means free access to any information except confidential data.
For instance, confidential medical records can be released only by authorized individuals or organizations (physicians, doctors, hospitals, insurance groups, or representatives of the government). Also, information should have appropriate permissions for using it (confidentiality); it must be well protected against any changes without permission (integrity); also, the data should be available to authorized users (availability).
The role of cybersecurity in modern systems and people's life is undoubtedly high. Increased volume and complication of cyber-security threats that include actions against phishing, theft of personal information, and other Internet vulnerabilities require people to remain alert about ensuring the security of the systems and information.
Any common unprotected computer (that does not operate with appropriate security controls in its system) connected to the Internet can be attacked by any unchecked program or service. Millions of virus web pages are being reported every day. Numerous computer systems are involved in such violations every day. New methods of attack develop constantly. The threats of the personal information system demonstrate the importance of information security as a necessary approach to the protection of data and systems on the state and international level. (Why Cyber Security is Important, 2001)
There are wide varieties of risks that are more dangerous than an ordinary virus website. Examples of how the computer and the system can be affected by cybersecurity incidents arise due to improper security controls, man-made or other disasters, and vicious users. (Why Cyber Security is Important, 2001)
In these terms, the correct cybersecurity policy must begin with the understanding that there are certain limits. Government should intrude in the process of preventing cybercrimes or cyberattacks, but it should act within the legal limits. Cyber-security policy has to be viewed not only as something that interacts with security and private space. Also, in its most common sense, security refers to personal responsibility. Every day people lock their homes and garages; buy emergency systems and similar services, and try not to leave the most valuable things insight.
Additionally, enterprises conclude agreements with various private security companies or security personnel. Government law can enforce the effective investigation of crime, arrest, and prosecution of the guilty. Nevertheless, on everyday basis police is not responsible for the protection of private assets (Titch, 2013).
In turn, it should not be the task of the government only to protect private information. It is almost the same as in the case with the physical property when responsibility falls on the owner of the property. Of course, people must recognize that government is a guard of citizens and their data at all levels. As users are interested in data protection, federal, state, or local government information security managers have to take part in this process, but they intend to be the partners and stakeholders rather than dictators. (Titch, 2013)
Technologies and Methods of Improving Cyber Security
First of all, one should understand that cyber techniques are something new and ever-developing for all mankind. There is a great number of uninvestigated issues in this direction. Cybersecurity develops in various ways and one of the most important ways, in which it regulates people's everyday life, is legislation. Researches try to help users improve their cybersecurity today. Dramatic increases in the field of cybercrimes and constant invasions into infrastructure demonstrated the need for effective policy and regulations. Today cybersecurity is the most serious economic and national priority.
Thus, governments and scientists should guarantee the possibilities for its development and welcome every effort to develop cybersecurity. A particular strategy that was suggested by the government of the USA included requiring businesses to notify consumers about any personal information missed and clarifying any penalty for such actions. This strategy has helped improve infrastructure protection, support public-private partnerships, and ensure information sharing.
Additionally, this new legislation has helped improve the sphere of government networks by recruiting cybersecurity professionals, improving voluntary assistance to companies, and guarding data storage solutions of high importance.
The strategy of the government was developed by a team that consisted of representatives from various departments and security agencies. It was named Strengthening Security Management through CyberStat Model. Also, CyberStat was launched. According to this model, experts will meet with agencies regularly to support liability and help them improve information security, and develop plans of further cybersecurity development.
CyberStat is a model of controlling the data provided about agencies' information security. It will help in assisting agencies with the risk problems emerging during the work process. The legislation will help improve the field of cybersecurity from the inside. It is crucial to mention certain emerging technologies and researches that will help improve cybersecurity from the outside. This sphere is constantly developing, and it offers a lot of various technologies that can be used to ensure the security of its consumers. (Improving Cyber Security, 2013)
The first one is continuous monitoring and remediation by CyberStat. In 2011, the reporting process of the key metrics allowed security practitioners to keep more information to help protect the agencies, company information, and their systems. This reporting requires minimal human intervention and allows avoiding a great number of weaknesses.
Using smart cards for identity management is the second reform in electronic business and is an opportunity to use cards as an additional security tool. It checks information about its holders, authenticates workers in the companies, gives access for managers to the information systems. The majority of federal workers, companies employees, and contractors use this technology. It is a valuable tool for the modern world with its tendency to automate life. Also, it is a trend to use them, as well as to widen the electronic capabilities of these cards (Improving Cybersecurity, 2013)
Another direction of developing cybersecurity technologies is the energy delivery system programs. It should be stated that the main mission of energy departments all over the world is to ensure the reliability and elasticity of the national infrastructures and their ability to serve citizens. The program devised for the Energy Delivery Systems will assist asset owners of the energy sector through integrated planning and researches in this industry. Such efforts and cybersecurity programs will strengthen the capabilities of the energy systems and cybersecurity at all.
Raising awareness of cyber-security in difficult modern conditions influences a great dependence of the government on services of the IT-systems and IT-specialists. Thus, the use of resources security systems as NIST, ISO 27002, the Cyber Security Alliance, and others increases the level of development of cybersecurity at the federal level. There are certain differences among state civilian agencies, defense departments, state, and local agencies. The guidance of NIST is used, generally, by federal civilian agencies. At the same time, 34% of IT professionals use NIST, and only 24 percent of the state governments use its resources.
Federal IT-professionals face increasingly complex facts of rapidly changing technologies, presidential directives that affect the priorities of limited resources, and increasing cyber threats.
The position of the Big Data Research and Development Initiative of the Barack Obama Administration, which was introduced in March 2012, encourages institutions to find ways to improve and spread the programmer's knowledge and understanding of complex and large sets of digital data. This knowledge can be applied to extremely complex issues, such as the creation of conditions for the Digital Strategy of the Government.
Its professionals have helped integrate the priorities of the Obama Administration last year, now they are fighting with the rapid extension of mobility as a strategy and a goal. The fluctuation in the creation of a new kind of digital government is the cyber threat. In case the Federal government hopes to create a new digital communication between citizens and institutions, cyber-security becomes more important than ever before.
New technologies and their benefits outweigh the challenges as they are widely used in companies and corporations. Most of the scientists agree that the integrated approach to the implementation of such kinds of technologies as " cloud " computing, big data solutions, and mobile initiatives will greatly facilitate agencies and will contribute to a more economical and affordable method of information distribution and storage.
The integrated solution for implementing these technologies will include full coordination and optimization of all segments of the implementation, including virtualization, network, computers/servers, data storage systems, and applications, security, originally built in each layer.
The financial realities rule in every particular country and the world in general. One governmental IT-professional in an interview spoke about the existing conditions as an austerity environment. It does not seem like many institutions can implement additional programs that are aimed at creating an integrated solution, which increases the potential for these technologies to change the government. Agencies will look for those partners who can understand and accept the financial restraints, and also improve their capabilities in the potential integration of the disparate projects (The Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance, 2012).
These three notions of cloud computing, mobility, and large data present different challenges for any organization. Cloud computing, if implemented properly, brings cost savings, flexibility, and the ability to extend the functionality without an overhaul of outdated systems.
Mobility, on the other hand, is seductive, because it has the potential to change the way government employees perform their work radically. This can increase the performance of the workers when making the civil service more attractive to young workers that are used to be connected wherever they are. Almost seven out of 10 participants believe that mobile device management lies in the security of their devices.
From these three technologies, big data can be considered barbaric and not appropriate for federal agencies and companies. Those who work on projects with big databases are excited about the identification of previously unpredictable decisions to some of the most enduring problems. It also has the potential to support the entrepreneurial spirit in the government, public, and private sectors. It looks forward to building new models of performance based on the information behind a huge amount of experimental data.
For all three companies, providing q considerable cyber-security should be fundamental. Three-quarters of governmental IT-professionals believe that secure cloud computing is really competitive, and their agencies are well equipped to deal with cyber threats. That may be true; on the other hand, however, it may be a reflection of the fact that three-quarters of the government IT-experts have also made significant contributions to cybersecurity, although many still have neither adopted cloud computing, implement mobile technology, nor run projects with large databases (the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance, 2012).
Emerging Cyber Security Technologies
The E-government Act issued in 2000 was signed by President Bush to create a 24-7 government. The purpose was to avoid the need to stand in line at the DMV for a long time only to make payment for annual vehicle registration (Barker, 2011).
Security was, of course, a problem, but it was not at the forefront of the move as the government agencies were ready to go through significant changes in equipment, manning, and practices to transfer data and programs on the Internet. Now, ten years later, people continue to see the improvements and changes; for example, the Department of Veterans Affairs is processing all application forms and records online.
The high cost of the government that was expected to make such an overhaul in the system was considered; nevertheless, the U.S. should spend more on cybersecurity and had to learn these lessons the hard way. As one can see further, recent violations by anonyms in FBI and Ministry of Internal Security systems were disappointing, as these two state bodies should have been protected against any cybercrimes. A significant question arose. How does the government expect to control the security management of governmental systems for critical infrastructures if they cannot protect their assets?
In 2009, President Obama called for using malicious programs for a cyber attack against the Iranian nuclear system computer networks, namely the Stuxnet worm. That was named the first use of cyber weapons by the United States. Most recently, Iran experienced more cyberattacks associated with their nuclear systems and operations (Airdemon, 2010).
Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) has changed cybersecurity games, as APT-attacks can be so complex that many well-known methods of detection and protection are not effective against them. APT uses the target operation code, and any vulnerabilities can be detected by Intrusion Detection Systems and anti-virus (Casey, 2011). The problem is that, after the detection of the malware, it is impossible to say for how long the malware has been operational in the system.
Further, in the case of APT, it cannot be determined if the detected malware is a set of compromises. In APT, it is possible to use several malware tools to ensure access to the state support of the attackers. With the above attacks on critical infrastructure and state systems, as well as the overall increase in the complexity of cyber attacks, governments at the international level considered cybersecurity more important than ever before.
The role of these new technologies and strategies of cybersecurity is in the possibility to integrate them in the public and private sectors to improve cybersecurity at the local, national and international levels. New technologies need to evaluate networks in real-time dynamically (for example, with the use of external agents and real-time forensic analysis). These technologies should also make the attack area less predictable and constantly developing, for example, through the use of the moving target technologies.
Moving Target Technologies
The goal of the Moving Target (MT) technology is to change constantly the attacks of the network and increase the cost to the attacker. Moreover, it is aimed at decreasing all kinds of predictabilities and weaknesses present at any time. From the security point of view, the problem in most of today's networks is that they are static and easy to hack for the attacker. He just analyzes the system over time and develops the best strategy to earn the vulnerability. Moving the goal of protecting networks allows supporting changes and environmental values (Grec, 2012).
For instance, an organization or a company can change the IP addresses of the network, operating systems, open ports or protocols, or any other areas of the computer environment. Thus, when an attacker examines the network and scans it, there will be not much success. If the attack is launched, the chances of a successful penetration will be significantly reduced because of the dynamic changes in the environment. MT defense may also respond to attacks by reducing the network areas, or access the attacker (Grec, 2012).
The most difficult problem of using MT lies in maintaining the operating network users in the process of change and minimizing the costs. JumpSoft Company is created based on a moving target defense package named JumpCenter. JumpCenter utilizes adaptive automation systems, which can reduce the attack. The concept behind JumpCenter and MT protection is the maximization of the cost and risks for the attacker.
JumpCenter holds the net operational deployment at the application level. The application layer is more profitable, as it is regularly updated through vendor releases that can be used by hackers. JumpSoft adds stimulus that downed applications harder influence on the mission because the loss of a single application may crash the business (JumpSoft, 2013)
State Support Moving Target Technologies
In 2011, the Council of Advisors on Science and Technology sponsored the work of the Network and Information Technology, Research and Development program. NITRD identified new technologies, such as MT as a Federal Cybersecurity game change research and development. The governmental initiative asks to support this program or other research partners in developing the MT technology also were related to support of the public and private sectors and review security in cyberspace.
This way, in 2011, Professor Scott DeLoach from Kansas (USA) got a $1 million grant from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research with the purpose to learn the moving target technology (Chabrow, 2012). Intelligent defenses from hackers attacks can prevent the military reactive position on the cyber active deed. It was supposed to be prevented by creating a reliable defense. Thus, if the military networks are unpredictable with the help of moving the target technologies, the chances of cyber attacks and APTs will be reduced. (Chabrow, 2012).
Real-Time Forensic Analysis
The use of computer forensic tools in criminal proceedings plays a necessary role in the acceptance of the case in the modern digital world. Another way, in which it is used and related to network monitoring, is real-time forensic analysis as an investigative approach to maintaining awareness about the crimes and continuous control over the network. Though remote access monitoring keeps an eye on the network and takes the necessary measures to correlate threats and enhance protective forces; real-time forensic analysis also allows the number of incidents to be reproduced and causal events to be analyzed in the future.
This technology is named the Network Forensics Analysis Tool and its aim lies in preparing the system for forensic medical examination. This has its purpose to facilitate the monitoring and convenience for violations in the field of security and configuration errors. The information revealed when analyzing the network traffic may also help with the background data. (Stolfo, Creamer, and Hershkop, 2006). In addition to monitoring the network, the network forensic offers a lot of practice using methods. For example, health authorities can fall under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). This Act requires the data transmission between networks to be monitored.
Although all the information provided by NFAT rather frequently is unnecessary, it is better to have a lot of information on the legal aspects than not enough data. NFAT can execute the recovery of the missed data while other methods are not able to do this because of constant analysis of anomalies or occurring problems (Stolfo, Creamer, and Hershkop, 2006).
Government Support in the Real-time Forensic Analysis
State support of the real-time analysis is visible in the state and federal government agencies or the criminal justice system. The analysis is an integral part of the justice and law enforcement agencies that have expanded to include the entire divisions dedicated to computer forensics. The question is whether the government at the local and international levels should be interested in forensic analysis somewhere behind the field of criminal justice. Forensic analysis has its importance from the network security perspective, the ways the governments can reveal more information about existing and created threats. It is a comprehensive analysis of them.
In 2006, the National Science Foundation and the DARPA supported the Columbia University project that intended to create an e-mail message in support of law enforcement and other government researches. The thesis allows email traffic for analysis of external communication, social interactions, and certain investments. According to the report, EMT is used by many organizations (Stolfo, Creamer, And Hershkop, 2006).
Since 1999, DARPA funded numerous information assurance experiments using different commands to simulate attacks, the behavior of respondents, and users during the cyber attacks activities, such as denial of service, malicious software and other threats, the enemies of the intelligence data (Levine, 2003). The real-time forensic analysis allowed early detection and analysis of the red team and blue team efforts and contributed to the lessons for future responses.
State Support of the Cyber Security
It is evidence of state support that the U.S. Army and Missile Defense Command intended to negotiate with the University of Auburn for creating new services in the development, acquisition, alteration, support, and procession of the Cyber Technology Lab.
Services had to meet the future possible needs of the Warfare Center (FWC); they included a wide range of technical and other activities. University had designed and tested for the U.S. Government a special, wide, and comprehensive Computer Network Laboratory Operations. They now are called Cyber Technology Lab. Cyber-technological Laboratory was developed for Government Research and development, Analysis, and Evaluation of Computer Network Operations with the use of technologies of the Ministry of Defense and National Security Agency guidelines.
Cyber Technologies Laboratory trained their employees to understand the operations of Cyber-technological Laboratory identification of and protection from the zero-day attacks, network security measures for wireless networks based on firewall and virtual private network (VPN), intrusion prevention, immediate response methods for mobile users to several critical attacks in the Ecoregion/hotel-protected network home network and smartphones with special defense for confidential access to information. This technology is extremely important because it protects public wireless network systems against any attacks (Cyber Technology Lab (CTL) Support, 2008)
Auburn University is the only University in the state of Alabama, which was appointed by the Ministry of National Security as the national Center of Excellence in the field of information support of scientific research. Auburn University has enough knowledge, skills, experience, and ability to apply the necessary software vulnerability analysis for improvement of expertise, and development of methods of infection and masquerade detection. The acquisition will help strengthen the previous work (Auburn University). It is implemented that the grant to any other resource will receive additional costs from the Government and will not be recovered through competition. (Cyber Technology Lab (CTL) Support, 2008)
Those actions are not opened to foreign participation. Based on the research market, the government had a policy that contained the federal acquisition regulations, particularly Part 12, concerning the acquisition of commercial items in this tender and described goods and services.
However, any stakeholders may identify the contracting officer and has the possibility to satisfy the government's requirement with commercial goods within 15 days of this notice. Proposed actions contract for services, for which the Government intends to petition and conduct a dialogue with only one source under the authority of FAR. This intent to give grant as the only source of the contract will not be a request for competitive proposals.
Interested parties that believe they can meet governmental demands without substantial duplication of cost to the Government is invited to submit in writing not more than 15 pages their willingness, and to include detailed technical information reasonably sufficient to permit the Agency analysis to identify bona fide opportunities for implementation of the requirements of the Government. To respond to the problems the operator must demonstrate:
- history of extensive experience in the design, operation, and maintenance of Cyber Technology Lab, knowledge, verifiable information security architecture, DoD Architecture Framework compatible testing procedures to evaluate the new cyber-technology;
- the ability to take the ongoing project immediately without disruption of the current operations.
The answers without the necessary documentation will be deemed to be improved. (Cyber Technology Lab (CTL) Support, 2008)
Events that occurred in April of 2007concerning cyber attacks on Estonia and cyberattacks in 2008, during the Georgian invasion helped increase awareness of cybersecurity. It not only helped to protect the computers but also had implications for the U.S. national security and economic well-being. As a result, cybersecurity developed to the top priority, making it one of the key problems facing the modern digital society.
Today, most cyber operations are manual and performed by persons. Because there is a significant shortage of skilled cyber experts, the task of protecting people is a daunting task. In fact, one constant theme against cybersecurity used today is that it is simply not effective for most types of modern computer attacks. Thus, all government agencies require advice, help, coordination, and resources to support systematic planning and implementation. It has to develop the technologies needed to assure the supremacy of the warfighter in cyberspace.
All the experts agree that there are significant needs in the following areas:
- Well-educated workforce (training cyber-experts).
- Cyber tools.
Stephen Chabinsky, Director of Interagency Cyber Task Force, said that there are 12 goals of supporting cybersecurity. These include the following:
- Go to Manage a unified Federal network company (an integrated communications system for the architecture of the Federal government's overall safety standards for the entire network).
- Deploy the internal system of detection.
- Develop intervention prevention.
- Check and possibly redirect research and funding.
- Connect all the government cyber-centers.
- Develop a national cyber-security plan.
- Improve the security of the classified networks.
- Expand cyber education.
- Determine enduring leap technology (investments with high-risk, high-reward research and development to ensure transformational changes). (Djamshidi, 2010)
As a conclusion to this part of the paper, it can be stated that advanced cyber-attacks against the public and private sectors at local, national, and international levels had caused an increase in the funding and support of cybersecurity. They were the causes of studying emerging cybersecurity technologies. New technologies need to evaluate networks in real-time dynamically (for example, it can be done with the use of external agents or real-time forensic analysis.) These technologies should also make the attack area less predictable and constantly developing, for example, through the use of a moving target defense.
Benefits and Disadvantages of the State Supporting
The government often provides various types of funding for scientific initiatives, such as research, environmental innovation, job creation, or social services. The financing can be beneficial, and sometimes vital to facilitate the success of the programs, improve the economy or create incentives for the private sector to participate in programs that benefit society as a whole. On the other hand, public funding may also have significant drawbacks, such as insufficient independence and strict guidelines on funding use. The debate about how the government should spend its money is one of the oldest debates in the history of state policy.
First of all, financing can help in the provision of services and opportunities for more people. For example, the government has funded many grants and work-study programs for higher education. Without these grants, many students would not be able to attend college or university, for example. If not many people attend college, the labor force will be less educated, and the overall economy will suffer badly.
In the future, when governments will give appropriate financial help to huge operations, Medicare or Healthcare programs, for example, can take advantage of the scale of the economy. That is one of the reasons why nations with government-funded health programs or any other sphere spend less than the United States on health care. The United States gives more than 16 percent of its gross domestic product on health while the average Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which has some kind of state-funded national health care program, spends about 9 percent. (Constance, 2012)
There are also arguments against public funding. These arguments state that the people and organizations that get state funding will depend on the state and will not learn to succeed without any assistance. Moreover, some scientists argue that the government is constantly spending too much money on programs or grants that do not provide a good return on investment. Some argue that funding the arts, for instance, is expensive and a disservice to taxpayers.
Much of these arguments have their roots in the classic ideological struggle. Certain economists support the Keynesian economic theory that presumes a strong welfare state, deficit spending during a recession, and state interference in the economy. Those are the means to preserve the capitalist system. Other economists such as Milton Friedman oppose state intervention in the economy. (Constance, 2012)
Example of Supporting Position
My position concerning support of cybersecurity by the governments and state is positive. I presume that the state should certainly fund the cybersphere development as it will not get prominent results without such support. Respected Steven Blaney started a new program in the cybersecurity field. He is the Minister of Public Safety in Canada. He initiated a cybersecurity contribution program. This is a new program for five years of funding that will support various projects and get some fresh data for the security of Canadas most vital cybernetic systems.
A total sum of $ 1.5 million for grants and donations will be available for those persons whose initiatives will improve cyber-security in Canada. Improvements should be done by acquiring access to the tools, guidelines, best experiences in the industry, infrastructure, and government.
The facts below identify and assess the new opportunities of providing advice about cybersecurity best practices. (Government of Canada Supports Cyber Security Research, 2014)
Another example of the state supporting and providing reforms in the sphere of cybersecurity is the Australian strategy of cyber development and program implementation.
New Opportunities Revealed by the Program
Two new mutually supporting organizations named CERT Australia and Cyber Security Operations Centre are the core parts of Australia's strategy of ensuring cybersecurity.
The Australian Government tries to get together their national computer emergency response team (CERT) institutions in a new body that will be called CERT Australia. CERT Australia is going to be the national central body under the Australian Government. This will be the center of cybersecurity information and advice for Australian society. It is considered to be the official contact point in the expansion of the global community and national certificates to support more effective international cooperation.
Cyber Security Operations Centre was created under the guidance of the White paper of the Australian Government's Defense. The center is going to provide the Australian Government with information from all sources of awareness about cybersecurity and empowerment. This will facilitate rapid response to cyber-security events of national importance. The center also will identify and analyze complex cyberattacks, and assist in the responses to cyber events at all levels of government and private key systems and infrastructure.
This way, such new initiatives, and programs will build the new innovative Australian Government cybersecurity capabilities.
In a conclusion, it can be stated that the responsibility and management in the sphere of cyber protection of state and private assets at the local, national, and international levels cannot be limited only to the government. First of all, every effort people make contributes to common progress and development. With the help of sharing various types of public, scientific, or academic programs, newly developing technologies can be promoted and highlighted.
Increased and continuous cooperation between the government and people based on mutual hard work will move society to the target of cyber protection.