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It is increasingly difficult to ignore the fact that the Internet has penetrated nearly all fields of human activity. To be more precise, it has become one of the comprising parts within a particular sphere. Therefore, it should be admitted that the Internet can be mainly regarded as a way of communication. Taking this point into account, it is to be said that such a phenomenon as networking has emerged as a result of the prominently growing communicative function of the Internet.

Hence, networks are an essential part of Internet performance. Thus, central to the entire study of the Internet as a means of communication is the concept of networks. As a consequence, it is necessary to touch upon this study and reveal numerous issues regarding various perspectives of the subject. In other words, a certain network is supposed to be described and analyzed from different points of view including technical, communicative, etc.

To be more exact, the paper discusses the following issues. For starters, it is important to outline the total number of machines to be networked and explain their significance within the network. Then, a particular physical network topology has to be chosen with a reference to the relevant IEEE standards. As a result, a certain network should be designed and illustrated. Therefore, the physical and topological preferences of the designs are supposed to be justified in a separate section.

Further, the advantages and disadvantages of the designed network need to be described, as well. Also, it is important to touch upon the description of the communication medium between two websites and justification of the technologies, which are the best fit to the efficient communications between these websites.

Technologies for Networking

To start with, it should be noted that the number of PCs within a network has no particular limits. Actually, it depends on the purposes of a network and the abilities of an organization to implement a wide network. Besides that, it is worth mentioning that the computer is a final destination and initial departure point of the information within any network. Therefore, it is important to describe technologies, which connect the PCs among each other.

A wide range of cables exists, but the most widespread one is a fiber optic cable. Actually, it can be explained by its high efficiency. To be more specific, a fiber optic cable transports data via bursts of light, which is sourced by short laser impulses. As a consequence, the light is reflected through the core of the cable at the same time, so that it provides a quick information exchange. Moreover, it explains the ability of this cable to perform at multiple modes (Mansfield & Antonakos, 2010, p. 46). Still, there are some other items to be included in the network.

A repeater or hub has to be described as well. Hub is a device, which broadcasts data among all ports connected to the hub, while the repeater is linked only to a single port. In fact, hubs obtain intelligence, as well, even though they are commonly regarded as means of a physical layer. To be more precise, the hub verifies the integrity of data packets and spreads it between the computers, which are connected to them. However, in case the processing of packets is delayed, some more hubs are required. In such a way, the broadcast data among connected segments of the network.

Though, in case the network grows in size, it is necessary to incorporate bridges or switches. Speaking about these devices in a more specific way, it is worth saying that switches are more effective than bridges because they presuppose subnetwork connection of all possible directions, while bridge unites only two directions of the network. What is more, the bridge adjusts an input and output speed, so that the delivery of packages is equal to all ports.

Further, it is important to describe network interface cards, which represent physical interaction between a computer and a network. In other words, it is an internal device, which interprets all delivered and departed data. In such a way, the network interface card customizes data for a particular PC and generalizes it for sending to the network. Finally, it has to be mentioned that routers are the devices, which are used for connecting two networks in one. Hence, the main machines and technologies are to be networked.

Physical Network Topology

It is necessary to outline that the physical topology for the network has been chosen as a star model. It can be explained by the fact that the top computer will be the center for all data, which circulates within the network. In such a way, the data will remain in this PC even though some misconnection occurs at a particular segment of the network. About the IEEE standards, it is worth emphasizing that the 100BaseFx standard should be applied.

Speaking about this standard in a more specific way, it is to be admitted that it uses two multimode fiber standards, which provide crossed fiber data exchange and low-cost interface connector so that the network will economize on costs and provide better data broadcasting (Kenyon, 2002, p. 286).

Network Design

About the design and illustration of the network, it is important to say that it will be presented as a sample of five computers in the network. As has been outlined in the previous section, the physical topology of the network is a star model. Therefore, one of the PCs is supposed to be chosen as the head computer. Taking this point into consideration, it should be admitted that two directions have to be created - A and B. Thus, the network requires two switches, which will stream data in both directions with no delay. As a consequence, three hubs have to be incorporated.

In such a way, computers 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 2 and 5, and 4 and 5 will be connected to the related hubs. Speaking about the fiber optic cable, it is worth saying that it is required to connect not only the computers within the segment but diagonally opposed PCs to each other. Concerning the network interface card, it is vital to note that the head computer does not have to use a standardized network interface card because this computer is expected to keep the entire data so that it should not be oriented on a particular data interpretation. In terms of the 100BaseFx standard, the network can regulate data traffic automatically.

Hence, it is to be mentioned that bridges and hubs have to be optimized by the 100BaseFx standard to avoid traffic conflicts. All in all, it is the basic description of the network design. As a consequence, it is necessary to justify the physical topology and technical layer of the network.

Topology and Technology Justification

It is necessary to explain the choice of the network topology. In fact, the star model of the network can be explained by the fact that every single computer is capable of accessing any other PC within the network. What is more, as it has been described in the previous sections, the presence of the head computer enables the network to store the entire data in this PC, so that the network minimizes its risk to face a data breach. Also, such a model is the best fit for the 100BaseFx standard because it uses binary multimode trafficking.

As for the network technologies, it is worth saying that they can be underpinned by the high efficiency of fiber optic cable. As has been mentioned before, this type of cable provides the quickest data exchange. In fact, the dimension of the fibers inside the cable is approximately 6.06 micrones, so that the bursts of light are impulse with a high frequency, which provides multimode trafficking (Zahariadis, 2003, p. 24). Thus, this sort of cable is a perfect combination with the outlined physical topology of the network. Eventually, it is the main reason for the physical topology and technologies of the network.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Design

To begin with the advantages, it should be admitted that this network design possesses a trafficking mechanism of the highest efficiency. To be more specific, the network is installed with multimode switches, highly powered hubs, and fiber optic cable, which is standardized by 100BaseFx requirements.

Also, it is worth mentioning that the network interface card presupposes automatic trafficking so that input and output data are broadcasted with correlated speeds. What is more, the star model of the physical topology implies a direct connection between all segments within the network. However, this network has its disadvantages.

To be more exact, it is worth admitting that the star model requires more cable than any other model without benefiting from the physical distance. It is needless to say that it spends additional costs. By the same token, the costs of the hubs make the entire network more expensive, in comparison to the ring or bus model. Besides that, it is important to admit that in case some of the hubs fail, the entire node or even a segment will not be able to process within the network (ITL Education Solutions Limited, 2011, p. 442). Thus, these are the main advantages and disadvantages of the network.

Communications across the Internet

Concerning communications across the Internet, it is to be said that it is the highest layer of networking. To be more precise, it is the layer of communication between more than one network. Taking this point into consideration, it has to be said that the main item of such communication is the Internet protocol, which comprises network frames. The frame is a scope of data, which is transformed at the level of the Internet layer. However, it is worth mentioning that such flows of data are controlled. It is needless to say that this flow control is essential in the networks, where data moves from node to node (White, 2013, p. 17).

Again, it is to be admitted that the best technology for such a communication level is fiber optic cable, which enables the quickest data exchange and immediate response to the input data. What is more, it should be noted that special hubs are also used for large networks to prioritize the routes of data flows. Similarly, the switches are applied to this level because they provide networks with multimode data broadcasting. Still, the most significant technology regarding the level of Internet communication is routers, which namely unite two or more networks.


All in all, it should be admitted that this paper has lingered upon the discussion and the analysis of networking and its communicative functions. Taking this point into account, it is important to say that the paper has described all comprising physical technologies, which are normally required for networking. Then, the physical topology model of the fictional network has been outlined.

As a consequence, the related standard has been suggested, as well. In fact, it is 100BaseFx standard, which presupposes the use of fiber optic cable and low-cost hubs. In the same way, network design has also been demonstrated. In fact, it has presented all comprising aspects from its natural view. As a result, the topology and technologies of the designed network have been justified. In general, the main parameter of justification has been the aspect of the data broadcasting speed and division. By the same token, the advantages and disadvantages of the designed network have been described.

As for the advantages, it is worth saying that they coincide with the justifications, which have been already outlined. About disadvantages, first of all, it is necessary to mention excessive costs for long cables and hubs, which in case of their failure will disable the entire segment from being broadcasted within the network. Finally, the network has been discussed in terms of the highest networking layer: Internet communication.

In fact, the basic principles have been described and the related technologies have been mentioned, as well. In fact, they mainly repeat the same principles for networking at less wide levels. Eventually, it is necessary to suggest the direction for future research. As the theoretical perspective has been revealed in this paper, it is important to apply this knowledge to particular empirical evidence of networking.

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