Abstract

The allowability of an abortion was examined in the context of research and case study. In fact, there are countries with laws that permit women to have an abortion and countries with statutory that prohibit to terminate pregnancy. The possibility of having an abortion is determined by such factors as religious preference, income and marital status. From the perspective of religion, pregnancy termination is immoral; however, not all the religion concepts consider an abortion to be a murder. Actually, wealth influences the procuring of an abortion in the contrary directions, as rich women can afford illegal abortions, while poor women do not have an opportunity to raise children. Moreover, it is more common for a single than for a married woman to have her pregnancy terminated and such a situation is closely interlinked with the income level. Together, these findings suggest that abortion is a controversial issue and it depends on every specific case.

Keywords: abortion, allowability, pregnancy, religion, income, marital status, case study.

Should Women Be Allowed to Have an Abortion for Any Reason?

Currently, many issues regarding women health arise because of different reasons. One reason relates to the abortion that causes hormone imbalance in a body of the woman and may lead to such irreversible changes as sterility. In fact, the majority of women of reproductive age are sexually active, but do not want to have kids. However, pregnancy termination has many controversial aspects and, therefore, some people tolerate such cases as forced necessity and other people consider them unacceptable. What concerns law and morality, the majority of countries either prohibit or do not encourage abortions. The problem is to decide, whether women should be allowed to have an abortion; in the case of affirmative reply the adoptable reasons for an abortion should be identified. Moreover, it is important to learn, whether there are circumstances that could justify the decision to have an abortion, as almost every woman has sexual relationships and, therefore, faces the necessity to control her body fertility.

In fact, some people argue that all the women deserve to have an opportunity to decide what to do with their body; however, there are a few aspects related to this decision that are influenced by it directly and indirectly. For example, the decision of a married woman will influence both her own and her husbands life, in particular, and the demographic structure of a society, in general. In fact, such an example may represent a reason, why marital status affects the abortion quantity: the statistics shows that the percentage of abortions among married women (46,1%) is much lower than among divorced (71,6%) or separated (74,7%) women (Crosstabs, n. d.). In addition, the research indicates that 56% of US people think that abortion should be legal, while 41% think that abortion should be illegal (Lipka, 2016). What concerns morality, 49% of people believe that artificial abortion is immoral, 15% think that it is excusable and 23% consider that this question does not relate to the conception of morality (Lipka, 2016). Among the group of people who think it is morally wrong, 75% of people are white evangelical Protestants and only 25% of people do not posses religious views (Lipka, 2016). The majority of nations allow abortions to save womens lives. Nevertheless, there are states where pregnancy termination is not allowed under any circumstances (Theodorou & Sandstrom, 2015). The purpose of this study is to cover and analyze both reasonable and irrational aspects of abortion in terms of religion, income and marital status in order to decide, if women should be permitted to have an abortion.

Literature Review

Pregnancy Termination and Religion

Actually, pregnancy termination is still a point of significant contention among different religious groups. According to Pew Research Center, the only religious group that has no clear opinion on this issue is United Methodist Church (Masci, 2016). However, this group admits that abortion should be legally allowed in some cases. However, there are religions, which have the uncompromising attitude towards abortions: the Roman Catholic Church is against abortion in all the cases disregarding circumstances. The Southern Baptist Convention is also opposed to abortion; however, they have only one exception, when there is the necessity to choose between the lives of a mother and her kid. In addition, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Assemblies of God opposes to abortion and Hindu teaching. In fact, the faith-based organizations, which tolerate pregnancy termination, include the United Church of Christ, Reform and Conservative Jewish movements, the Unitarian Universalist Association, the Presbyterian Church and the Episcopal Church, though some of them accept only exceptionally serious reasons (Masci, 2016). What is important, some religions have inconsistencies regarding their position on the issue of pregnancy termination, for example, there are some cases, when abortion can be tolerable, in Islam or Orthodox Judaism. Nevertheless, the position of a religious institution does not always coincide with the position of its members. For example, 48% of U.S. Catholics do not agree with the intolerability of Catholic Church to abortions (Masci, 2016). Thus, abortion is a matter of argument in terms of religious affiliation.

Abortion and Marital Status

Another aspect that has a linkage with abortion is the marital status of women. According to the report, the abortion patients for 2014 year differed in terms of relationship status (Jerman, Jones, & Onda, 2016). About 14% of the patients were married and 31% of them represented cohabiting partners. Actually, the abortion index of the married women was at the level of 0,4 in 2014 and this data stays almost the same nowadays (Jerman, Jones, & Onda, 2016). Moreover, the data informs that married women constitute the minority among the women, who have their pregnancy terminated in reproductive age. At the same time, women in cohabiting relationships have a high abortion rate (2,1), the abortion index of never-married or non-cohabiting women is a bit higher than the average and constitutes 1,2. In comparison to the previous years, the abortion figures of all the marital statuses remained the same, only pregnancy terminations among women in cohabiting relationships decreased (Jerman, Jones, & Onda, 2016). Thus, the issue of marital status is closely related to such factor as preceding births, when the family already has one or two children and does not plan to have more children. More than a half of the women, who decide to have an abortion, have prior births, while those, who have no prior births and no children, have their pregnancy terminated less frequently. Actually, these figures indicate that, in general, marital status has a deep impact on the decision, whether to induce pregnancy termination, as married women make abortions less often than others do, because life in marriage provides the feeling of security and permanent monetary support.

Abortion and Income Correlation

Recently, poor people report the tendency to have abortions. In fact, 49% of all the abortion patients are from poor families (Jerman, Jones, & Onda, 2016). The patients with high level of income tend to have pregnancy terminations less often. However, poor women have the highest abortion index among all the income groups (2,5), they are followed by the women, whose income is insignificantly higher, and their abortion index is at the level of 1,3 (Jerman, Jones, & Onda, 2016). This situation can be explained by the supposition that people do not have enough money to raise children and, thus, they decide not to give birth to a child. At the same time, some effective contraceptive methods can be rather expensive and, therefore, people with the lack of money cannot obtain them that could result in more cases of unwanted pregnancies and more cases of abortions.

In addition, the abortion-income interrelation is complemented by the terms of health insurance. In fact, the women, who have adequate financial status, make transfers to their health insurance account and may use the funds any time, however other women have to pay out of pocket. Nevertheless, there are only a few cases, when health insurance coverage may be used as a payment for abortion services: only such reasons as rape, life in danger or incest are appropriate (Jerman, Jones, & Onda, 2016). Thus, wealth is one of the elements that determines the abortion rate together with religion and relationship status.

The review of the sources mentioned above shows that religious affiliation, marital status and income affect the decision of having an abortion. Furthermore, religion produces spiritual power and, thus, plays the role of immaterial determinant; the family may have both physical and immaterial factor, and money is a material aspect of the issue. In the countries, where the influence of the church is not strong enough, the moral and religious aspects do not dominate, while, for example, money is still a strong indication of the situation regarding abortions.

Hypothesis

Women should be allowed to have an abortion based on religion, status, financial situation and other aspects at least in such cases as rape, incest, mothers life at risk or violation in family, as giving birth may produce negative implications and hazard effects in such circumstances. The identified hypothesis leads to the prediction that women, who have the possibility to have their pregnancy terminated on the basis of religion, marital status and financial situation and in such circumstances as rape, incest, mothers life at risk, violation in family or other issues, and who are similar in terms of the high level of criticality and their surrounding, will have more positive or at least neutral consequences than in the reverse situation. One more prediction that relates to the prohibition of pregnancy termination in the cases mentioned above may lead to negative results for both women and their future children. Thus, the analytic investigation of the incremental developments by covering all the possible options will show, whether the gathered data supports the hypothesis.

Methods

What is important, the data in this research paper comes from Guttmacher Institute report, statistics and Pew Research Center articles, which performed the statistical analysis, the detailed description of the collected data, the questionnaires and inquiries. This research is based on the following aspects: descriptive-qualitative method in the form of a case study in order to test the hypothesis; document review and thorough descriptions of the specific situations; statistical and correlational analyses; the exploration of the influence and relationships between religion, marital status, income and abortion, meta-analysis.

As the basis for this research, dependent and independent variables were selected. The dependent variable relates to the question whether women should be allowed to have an abortion for any reason. Independent Variables represent religious preference, income, and marital status. The subject of the study is women of a child-bearing age, who want to have an abortion for some reason in the context of religion, marital and financial status. The object of the study is their right to have an abortion on the basis of religion, marriage status and wealth. Similarly to the real-world environment, some statements are difficult to test, thus, the methods of analysis and prediction of all the possible situations were used and the general conclusion was made on the basis of their average rate. By consulting the elements of social science and psychological studies, every possible version was summed up and presented as supporting or contradicting the hypothesis with respect to positive or negative result. The result data was presented in the table of pro and con correlation with the specified positive and negative effects. In fact, the process of counting the results and comparing the number of pluses and minuses will show, whether it is reasonable to allow women to have an abortion taking into account religious laws, relationship status and the level of income.

Results

The results of a case study are represented in the tables. While making a decision, it is necessary to understand that the case is not about counting pros and cons, but about the types of positive and negative results that a woman is ready to accept. Moreover, it should be determined, whether abortion is appropriate in critical emergency and ordinary cases also should be regarded freestanding.

Religion

Women are allowed to have an abortion

Positive result

Negative result

If a woman has an abortion

The woman avoids having the unwanted child either from a man she may even not know or from a man, who she may hate for the abuse of some type.

A human being is not provided with the opportunity to live.

 

The woman avoids accusation from the side of her religion, as it allows abortions in such cases.

The woman might have some problems with health because of hormone, physical and moral shock.

 

The woman avoids undesirable changes in her life style.

The abortion may end with sterility.

 

The unborn baby avoids the hatred of his own mother.

 

If a woman does not have an abortion

In the case, when the woman is single and decides to give birth to this child, she will get a family.

The woman gives birth to the unwanted child from the hated father.

 

A human life is saved.

Most probably, the woman will be a single mother.

   

If the woman is married, the relations between the family members will be, probably, ruined.

   

The child will repersent the reminder of the disturbing episode in life.

Women are not allowed

Positive result

Negative result

If a woman has an abortion

The woman avoids having the unwanted child either from a man she may even not know or a man, who she may hate for the abuse of some type.

The woman is blamed for the abortion by the religious institution, as the religion does not allow abortions in any cases.

 

The unborn baby avoids the hatred of his own mother.

The woman does not avoid undesirable changes in her life, as she feels guilty now.

   

A human being is not provided with the opportunity to live.

   

The woman will have some health problems because of hormone, physical and moral shock accompanied by a sense of guilt.

   

The abortion may end with sterility.

If a woman does not have an abortion

In the case, if the woman is single and decides to give birth to a child, she will get a family.

The woman gives birth to the unwanted child from the hated father.

 

A human life is saved.

Most probably, the woman will be a single mother.

   

If the woman is married, the relations between the family members will be, probably, ruined.

   

The child will be the reminder of the disturbing episode in life.

Marital Status and Abortion in Case of Rape

In this case, only one choice should be made that depends on our preference.

Married women

Women are allowed to have an abortion

Positive result

Negative result

If a married woman has an abortion

Family remains united.

The unborn baby is killed.

If a woman does not have an abortion

A child remains alive.

Family may be ruined.

In the case, when the law forbids to have abortions, there is no choice and opportunity to opt for the results.

Women are not allowed by the law to have an abortion

Positive result

Negative result

If a married woman does not have an abortion

A child remains alive.

Family may be ruined.

Single women

Women are allowed by the law to have an abortion

Positive result

Negative result

If a single woman has an abortion

 

The unborn baby is killed.

If a single woman does not have an abortion

A child remains alive.

 
 

Family may be created.

 

Women are not allowed by the law to have an abortion

Positive result

Negative result

If a single woman does not have an abortion

A child remains alive.

 
 

Family may be created.

 

Income and Abortion in Case of Rape

In the prospect of money, the fact that abortions are allowed or forbidden does not plays a considerable role, as money may be used to violate the law and to make an abortion in any case even in the case of prohibition by the law.

Women with high income

Positive result

Negative result

If a woman has an abortion

She can afford to choose the best clinic for having an abortion.

A child is not born.

 

She has the access to the best medicine needed to recover.

 
 

She has the opportunity to divert her attention by new impressions.

 

If a woman does not have an abortion

She has enough money to raise children.

 
 

A child is not murdered.

 

Women with low income

Positive result

Negative result

If a woman has an abortion

 

A woman cannot afford to raise children, even if she wants.

   

She cannot afford a good clinic and expensive medicine.

If a woman does not have an abortion

A child remains alive.

A woman does not have enough money to raise children

To sum up, women should be allowed to have abortions in the cases of appropriate reasons and only after considering all the possible results.

Discussion

In fact, the test of the hypothesis that women should be allowed to have an abortion based on religion, status, financial situation and other aspects at least in cases of rape, incest, mothers life at risk, development retardation of a child or violation in family, as giving birth may have negative implications and hazard effects in such circumstances, resulted in both affirmative and negative answers.

First, the dependent variable is interlinked with the independent variable that is defined as religion. In order to learn, whether it is appropriate to allow women to have their pregnancy terminated, two issues were analyzed in terms of religion: when women were allowed to do abortion and vice a versa. As there are many different religious groups, it is reasonable to consider women as their representatives, who face the challenges of rape, incest, their own death because of the health reasons connected with pregnancy or giving birth, and violation in the family. Among the provided examples, there situation of mother's life at risk represents the case, when the abortion is frequently tolerated. In order to depict the situation from different points of view, two women are considered: the first woman is a follower of Buddhism and the latter is the representative of Christianity. From the perspective of Buddhism philosophy, abortion is a murder, but it is allowed in some cases that are noted in the research. One method that was used will be demonstrated by considering some of the special circumstances, for example, a rape, and the results will be reviewed in the two opposite cases when a woman does an abortion and when she does not. Thus, the following results can be predicted by taking into account the case, the religion affiliation and human psyche:

1. If the woman is the Buddhism representative and she has an abortion:

She avoids having the unwanted child either from a man she may even not know or from a man, who she may hate for any type of the abuse.

She avoids the accusation from the side of her religion, as it allows abortions in such cases.

She avoids undesirable changes in her life style.

The unborn baby avoids the hatred of his own mother.

A human being is not provided with the opportunity to live.

The woman will have some health problems because of hormone, physical and moral shock.

The abortion may end with sterility.

2. If the woman is the Buddhism representative and she does not have an abortion:

She gives birth to the unwanted child from the hated father.

Most probably, she will be a single mother.

If she is married, the relations between the family members will be, probably, ruined.

The child will be the reminder of the disturbing episode in life.

In the case, if the woman is single and decides to give birth to a child, she will get a family.

Human life is saved.

1. If the representative of Christianity has an abortion:

She avoids having the unwanted child either from a man she may even not know or from a man, who she may hate for the abuse of some type.

She is blamed for abortion by the religious institution, as religion does not allow abortions in any cases.

She does not avoid undesirable changes in her life, as she feels guilty now.

The unborn baby avoids hatred of his own mother.

A human being is not provided with the opportunity to live.

The woman will have some health problems because of hormone, physical and moral shock accompanied by a sense of guilt.

Abortion may end with sterility.

2. If the woman is the Christianity representative and she does not have an abortion:

She gives birth to the unwanted child from the hated father.

Most probably, she will be a single mother.

If she is married, the relations between the family members will be, probably, ruined.

The child will be the reminder of the disturbing episode in life.

In the case, if the woman is single and decides to give birth to a child, she will get a family.

A human life is saved.

By comparing two situations, a conclusion can be made that the majority of results are similar and most of them are negative that is logical in such situations. Nevertheless, if the Christianity representative strictly follows the laws and instructions of the church, the Buddhism representative has no choice that can be regarded as a negative aspect. The abortions that differ in marital status and income are regarded in the identical manner.

In order to produce identical conditions, the same case will be applied to the interrelations between such categories as abortion - marital status and abortion income. Though, the statistics shows that one of the reasons why married women make abortions is the control of the number of children in the family (Crosstabs, n. d.); however, it seems to be an insufficient reason for pregnancy termination, thus, extraordinary cases are considered. Therefore, the abortion int he circumstance of rape is regarded in the terms of marital status. In fact, the objective results will be the same without the regard of religious issues with the only exception of the sense of guilty; though, it may be present because of morality conceptions and, thus, it may follow the woman even in case of absence of different independent variables that are applied with the same effects but with the focus on marital status. By applying the concept of family, only one factor will be important and it will be destructive for the family, as the child may be regarded, as an external element in the family in the case of rape. In the situation, when abortion is allowed, the choice is made between giving birth and trying to accustom all the family members to the unordinary event in order not to endanger the harmony in the family. When the abortion is forbidden, the family unity is at a serious risk and there is no way to avoid it.

Actually, money has always been effective in solving the problems. Moreover, income influences both the possibility to have an abortion even if it is forbidden and the opportunity to raise children. At the same time, if a woman is not allowed to have an abortion and has low income, she gets into uncertain situation, when her amount of money is not enough either for the abortion or for raising a child.

In addition, this research has limitations: the situations are imaginable and based on the data evaluation, not on the experiments, that are not tested in practice. Moreover, this study covers only extraordinary situations and shows that it is reasonable to allow women to have abortions in serious occasions, while common questions may be highlighted in the further study.

Conclusions

The research is based on meta-analysis and it shows that women should be allowed to have an abortion for a reasonable excuse, as it will predominantly result in positive effects. Actually, the gathered data supports the hypothesis. The opinion of the social institutions on the issue does not always coincide with the opinion of their representatives. Finally, the restrictions of religion, marital status and income considerably influence the rate of abortion though they are not that strict as the law is.

 

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