A. Task 1
Long-Term Assets and Depreciation

Accounting aspects associated with long-term assets include fundamental costs, salvage value of the asset, exact approximates of the asset use as well as the retirement facet of the asset under consideration. The fundamental cost of long-term assets involves the original cost incurred while acquiring and setting up the asset for normal usage. Alterations to the fundamental cost occur in case of adverse changes in the asset’s useful life. For instance, it is possible for the fundamental cost of any given asset to increase in cases whereby rehabilitation of the asset extends its expected useful life-period. Notwithstanding, asset useful life period is the approximate number of years that the asset is expected to bring forth economic benefits. On the other hand, salvage value of a long-term asset refers to the pre-meditated economic value associated with the asset after the lapse of its useful life-period. It should be noted that the non-current asset use approximates are elements of the asset’s fundamental cost, salvage value and useful life period. Such depreciation methodologies as the straight-line, sum-of the digits and double declining balances are used in the course of effecting the changes in the book of accounts. Furthermore, it should be noted that irrespective of the depreciation methodology affected in the given calculations the reliable entry allowed for a given year is represented as follows:

Impairment of Long-Term Assets

Long-term assets are considered to be impaired whenever it is ascertained that their immediate net carrying amount (original cost less acc. depreciation) is greater than its future undiscounted cash flows. In accordance with the U.S GAAPs impairment of long-term assets should only be recognized whenever it is ascertained that there is lack of security for the asset’s net carrying value. Additionally, it should be noted that once the recognition of the non-current asset is ascertained they are no longer eligible for restoration. Impairment of long-term assets occurs whenever there are alterations in the manner in which regulation and business environments operates as well as when there is technological changes effected to a firm’s operations. Notwithstanding, in the course of recognizing impaired assets the entire process can lead to the creation of deferred tax assets (Ernst & Young 2010).

B. Task 2

Accounting Concepts used in Prescribing Recognition and Use of Depreciation

IAS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment, is used in expounding the accounting concept of recognition and use of long-term assets in respect to depreciation (Deloitte 2009). In the course of recognizing depreciation of long-term assets effectively, the depreciable value should be assigned on a systematic approach in respect to the asset’s entire useful life-period. The depreciation approach that is used in the course of reflecting the depreciable amount should depict a systematic pattern that indicates affirmative consumption of the economic benefits by the entity. The depreciation should also be charged to the income statement of the entity. The exception of the charge is only allowed whenever the value is included in the net carrying value of another asset. Notwithstanding, the depreciation of long-term assets start after purchase is conducted and continues irrespective of whether the asset will be in use or not. Recognition of non-current assets is undertaken whenever it becomes probable that the future economic benefits of the asset will be reflected into the entity as well as when it is ascertained that the cost of the asset under consideration can be measured easily. Recognition of the costs is affected when they are incurred.

Accounting Concepts used in Prescribing Recognition and Use of Impairment of Assets

According to the IAS 136 impairment of assets are measured at their respective costs and later recognized in the statement of comprehensive income. Also, it is positive to note that the impairment loss of the asset can be treated as a revaluation decrement and thus, compensated for by revaluation of asset reserve. After recognition is undertaken entities are thus required to revise their respective carrying values of the assets as well as ascertain their future depreciation charges. It should be noted that impairment losses of assets is recognized as a cash-item by entities especially because of their distinct nature to counterbalance combined net carrying values.

C.  Task 3

Policies for Recognizing and Accounting for Losses: UBS

The company presents such long-term assets as property and equipment by carrying on costs less their accumulated amount of depreciation and the amount of accumulation of impairment losses.  Notably, the amount is reviewed periodically for the purpose of impairment. It should be noted that the entity recognizes the useful life of their property and equipment as approximate estimates of the economic benefit derived through the utilization of the asset as a whole. In case of alterations of the property use the entity conducts re-measuring exercise in order to ascertain their fair values and later reclassify them as investment property (USB 2011).

Thus, gains derived from the re-measuring exercise are recognized in the profit or loss up to the level where it reverses a previous impairment loss entry on any given property. The remaining gain is further recognized in the comprehensive income and later presented in the revaluation reserve of equity. On the other hand, losses are recognized in the profit or loss account.

Policies for Recognizing and Accounting for Losses: Credit Suisse

All of the non-current trading assets are conducted in accordance with the U.S GAAPs. Thus, loans and mortgages owned by the entity are reported at their respective fair value. Any alterations made in respect to the aforementioned values are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations. It should also be noted the entity adopts slight Swiss GAAPs principles which recognizes mortgages rights and life settlement agreements at their lowest costs or at costs reflected in the market.

Given the fact that loans are also long-term assets in the banking sector, the entity recognizes loan impaired whenever it is ascertained that available information and events depicts a lack of ability for the Group to collect the amounts owed in accordance with the contractual agreements at the time of loan issuance. The Group recognizes two types of impaired loans; non-performing loans and non-interest-earning loans which are accounted with respect to the cash basis or in other cases cost recovery approach.

Profitability Ratio: Return on Assets with Depreciation and Impairment

Credit Suisse; Return on Assets= Profit before interest and tax/Average Total Assets

For 2010 = 7,487,000/1,032,005

= 7.25 *100%, 725 %

For 2011= 3,461,000/1,049,165

 = 3.29* 100 %, 329 %

USB: Return on Assets= Profit before interest and tax/Average Total Assets

For 2010 = 7,455,000/1,317,247

= 5.66* 100 %, 566 %

For 2011 = 5,350,000/1,419,162

= 3.77 * 100 %, 377 %

Evaluation:  with respect to the ROA ratios calculated for the two companies it is evidently clear that there is a significant decrease in the level of profits for both the entities. For instance, for Credit Suisse the ROA falls from 725 % in 2010 to 329 % in 2011. On the other hand, the level drops for USB from 566 % in 2010 to 377 % in 2011. The fall of profitability for these two companies might be associated with the firms’ utilizing most of their assets in the effort to post profits.

Return on Assets without Depreciation and Impairment

UBS; Return on Assets= Profit before interest and tax/Average Total Assets

For 2010 = (7,455,000- 918,000)/ 1,317,247

= 6,537,000/ 1,317,247

= 4.96 * 100 %, 496 %

For 2011 = (5,350,000-761,000)/ 1,419,162

= 4,589,000/1,419,162

= 3.23*100 %, 323 %

Credit Suisse; Return on Assets= Profit before interest and tax/Average Total Assets

For 2010 = 7,487,000/1,032,005

= 7.25 *100%, 725 %

For 2011= 3,461,000/1,049,165

= 3.29* 100 %, 329 %

Evaluation: for USB, the ROA depicts an insignificant decrease in the ratios. The ratio decreases from 496 % in 2010 to 323 % in 2011. This is associated with the firm decreasing usage of its level of assets needed in affecting a profit. On the other hand, the Credit Suisse ratios decrease significantly.

Working Capital Ratios

Inventory Turnover Days: USB Company

For 2010 = (average inventory * 365)/ COGS,

= (74,768,000*365)/ (12,657,000)

= 2156 days, 5 years

For 2011, = (53,174,000*365)/ (11,143,000)

= 1741 days, 4.7 year

Inventory Turnover Days: Credit Suisse Company

For 2010, = (324,704*365)/18,992

= 6240 days

For 2011 = (279,553*365)/16,569

= 6158 days

Accounts Receivable Days: USB

 For 2010 = (Average accounts receivable*365)/sales

= (38,071*365)/7,838

= 1772 days

For 2011 = (41,322*365)/ 4,427

= 3406 days

Accounts Receivable Days: Credit Suisse

 For 2010 = (42,147*365)/ 5,920

= 2598 days

For 2011= (30,191*365)/2,790

 = 3949 days

Accounts Payable Days: USB Company

For 2010= (Average Accounts payables * 365) / COGS, (62,454*365)/ 12,657

= 1801 days 

For 2011 = (58,763*365)/ 11,143

 = 1924 days

Accounts Payable Days: Credit Suisse

For 2010 = (220,443*365)/ 18,992

= 4236 days

For 2011 = (236,963*365)/ 16,569

= 5220 days

Evaluation: with respect to capital management it is evidently clear that USB bank manages its working capital in an effective and efficient manner in comparison to the Credit Suisse Company. This is depicted by the slighter lower number of days the company takes to receive and pay accounts.

D. Task 4

In conclusion, it is evidently clear to indicate that the assets of any given company require proper presentation as well as disclosure in order to depict a fair and true representation of the financial performance of the company. Potential investors rely heavily on the financial instruments that are provided to the public in order to make relevant choices. Financial reports which are represented fairly have the capability to attract the interest of the investors since positive representation is availed for decision making processes.

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