The life on Earth today has turned into a vicious circle of inconsiderate actions, unfortunate results, and countless regrets. All of the above mentioned represents the stages that humanity goes through in its struggle with climate change issues. The articles that were analyzed are the reflection of each separate stage as they dwell upon specific examples of outcomes and compromises connected with climate. Thus, the following articles were opted for in the process of work: “Running out of Climate Space” by Ralf Ohlemuller, “How the Mighty are Fallen” by William Laurance, and “The Clean Air Dividend”by Drew Shindell.

The idea of the article titled “Running out of Climate Space”by Ralf Ohlemuller is to demonstrate that biogeographical patterns and diversity are the direct result of climate interplay and adaptive idiosyncrasy of species. Climate change does not only affect the current state of biodiversity, but also influences the evolutionary processes, such as shifts, interactions, and changes in the pattern of development. The author’s key factor is the velocity of climate change of an area, which is calculated by quantifying how fast isotherms (or the stable line of temperature indicators) have shifted. In 2009 the formula has been applied to practice by the scientists to estimate the climate change across geographic space over the last fifty years. The results demonstrated that at most latitudes climate change velocity is much similar on land and in the ocean. It was also proved that under warming climate conditions, the speed of climate change varies around the globe, with mountainous regions being attributed to low velocity indicators, and lowlands pertaining to high velocity areas. Seasonal shifts were proved to be faster in the sea, especially in the Arctic.

Such information is of vital importance for several reasons. Firstly, it is paramount for global conservation plans and schemes. Secondly, the analysis of climate change pattern sheds light on changes within biodiversity. Thirdly, being able to predict what areas will be affected sooner might give us a chance to take measures towards protecting and conserving certain species, depending on their adaptive idiosyncrasy. People should realize that climate velocity of a certain area is directly linked to the abundance of its endemic species. The major statement of the article is that the faster isotherms shift, the fewer endemic ecosystems are found in the region.

The article “How the Mighty are Fallen” by William Laurance demonstrates the change of biogeographical diversity in the population of giant trees around the world. The article becomes a solid confirmation of the fact that changes in ecosystem development occur due to the climate change.

It should be noted that only a small number of tree species have the genetic ability to grow into big structures. Thus, to achieve the potential stature they rely on such factors as the right place for seedling, proper growing conditions, and low adult mortality within the ecosystem. The conclusion one can make is that if any of the variables changes, the growth capacity will be modified affecting the patterns of development. The theories mentioned in the article suggest that tree growth has decreased in warmer years. The concept is quite simple: during warmer years the tree produces less energy and consumes more to survive, thus, having less free energy for its own growth. As for the trees that grow in the mountainous regions, they use their branches to capture the mist and water droplets. However, global warming influences the way clouds are elevated and deprives the trees of moisture sources. Moreover, changing climate also hurts big trees by causing surface fires.

The given information is relevant because it demonstrates the direct consequences of climate change on living ecosystems of the giant trees. Moreover, having the necessary data concerning the characteristics of certain species and their climate idiosyncrasy at hand, scientists would be able to measure the impact of climate change on their development patterns and predict their future using the climate space analysis mentioned in the previous article.

The article by Drew Shindell titled “The Clean Air Dividend”offers a solid scheme of actions to stop global warming. The author sets some distinct goals and measures to be taken as soon as possible to avoid major consequences in the future. It can be achieved by reducing emissions that lead to two types of pollution: black carbon and ozone, the pollutants that contribute to global warming and law air quality. The measures recommended by the author range from tightening emission standards on diesel cars and trucks to reducing leaks from national gas pipelines and tanks. The adherence to these measures should reduce global warming by about half of degree Centigrade in 2050. According to calculations, regional benefits will be great as it is black carbon that disrupts the rainfall, increases warming and melting of snow and ice in the Arctic regions and Himalayas.

The constant call for action on the part of the author of the article inspires to take these simple measures to prevent what can turn into a bigger disaster. The information provided in the article sets quite a bright contrast in the mind of a reader. The suggested steps that can be made in order to avoid bigger consequences of climate change are much simpler, than the outcomes and impact of global warming.

The three articles in question are connected to the topic of climate change, its consequences on different aspects of human activity, and possible ways to prevent them in future. William Laurance demonstrates the detriment of climate change; Ralf Ohlemuller dwells upon the irrefutable connection between the climate change and alternations in biogeographical diversity; Drew Shindell offers specific measures to avoid it altogether. There exist a number of various issues connected to global warming, however, it is sensible to analyze specific aspects of a global threat in detail to comprehend the scale of its impact.

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